The fort of Ulcinj

Ulcinj - Nature

With its location Ulcinj takes the farthest South part of the Adriatic coast, and it is situated in the southeast part of the Montenegro. Because of the outstanding natural and geographic characteristics, Ulcinj with its surroundings belongs to the marginal subtopic zone of the European Mediterranean. With its South part, of length of 30 kilometers Ulcinj comes out on the Adriatic Sea, and on its East part River Bojana is situated. In the central part of Ulcinj there is Sasko Lake, and in the bay the massif of mountain Rumija shelters Ulcinj.

With nearly 20 kilometers of the beach, of which 15 km nice sandy ones, with over 6000 h of the cultivable soil, olive grows of about 88.000 trunks, healing features of the sand, mud and mineral sulfide waters (which got biggest marks from the eminent domestic and foreign experts and institutes), Ulcinj represents a respectable economically tourist potential for the development of all types of tourism (elite, nautical, and health one), and agriculture as a comparative branch. The area of 255 km2, which Ulcinj with the surroundings has, is a unique example of unusual beauty: endless sandy beaches, azure blue sea, rivers, lakes, mountains and dense vegetation. On the North of Ulcinj a coastal mountain Mozura (622m) is spread, and behind it is a part of the mountain massif of Rumija. On the East part of Ulcinj streams river Bojana, which by water way connects Ulcinj with Albania. West of Ulcinj there is a well known coastal town and the Montenegrin harbor, Bar. The shore of Ulcinj, from the bay Kruca to the mouth of the River Bojana, is 32.7 km long. Ulcinj lies on the open sea. The highest mountain peak is Kozjak (1.427 m height above sea level). The area on which town was founded and on which it is still developing is very alpine. The foothill of the hills Pinjes (108m), Mendre (164m), and Bijela Gora (289m) constitute that area. On the East part of Ulcinj there are fields with lakes, swamps, little rivers as well as long sandy beaches.


Because of the very suitable climate, on a tourist map of Europe for a long time Ulcinj has been recognized as a perfect climate summer and winter resort. Ulcinj is typified by the moderately Mediterranean climate and subtropical vegetation. Such climate understands an abundance of light and warmth, with 2.700 sunny hours per year. Ulcinj is for sure one of the sunniest places of the Adriatic coast. The average yearly temperature of air is 16.5C o , so Ulcinj is considered to be a much warmer place compared to other towns on the Montenegrin coast. The summers in Ulcinj are pleasant, and are not too warm, because for the constant flow of air, in that town there are very few tropical days. Air temperature reaches 38 C o , while in July the approximate air temperature is 25.2 C o . during the summer period the sun warms up to 11.5 hours during the day. Sunbathing and swimming in Ulcinj lasts for 6 months, from May until October. The equalized temperatures of the sea and the air (from 22 to 26C o ), allow whole day enjoyment in swimming in delightful water of the Ulcinj bay and sunbathing on the healing beaches of the Ulcinj coast Winters in Ulcinj are mild, snow rarely falls, and the air temperatures is only 10 Co. Springs as well as autumns come pretty early and are mostly warm with moderate temperatures both of air and sea(in the spring the temperature is !4 and in the autumn it is 17C o ). The South coast to which Ulcinj belongs is considered to be the clearest area of the Mediterranean. The average yearly humidity is 67%, except that in July it reaches 63%, and in May and November 71 71 %, which shows a regular ratio of the temperature and the air humidity. The average amount of the precipitation, exclusively rain, is 134 mm/m 2 . The most characteristic winds are: the tempest, the south wind, and the mistral. The tempest blows from the Northeast direction. Usually it is a cold wind, which blows late in autumn and late in winter. The costal wind better known as the south wind or sirocco, blows in Ulcinj in autumn, winter or in spring and it brings rain. That wind usually makes big waves on the sea. The wind mistral comes from the direction west southwest. It is a pleasant wind, which brings refreshment from the heat in the warmest summer hours. The greatest intensity, with which mistral can blow is 10 m/sec.

The climate in Ulcinj has contributed to a creation of three vegetative regions: evergreen (which includes the vegetation from 300 m height), mixed (up to 500 m height) and submontane one (above 500 m height). Vegetation regions have made conditions for the development of various kinds of fruit, vegetable and other sorts. In the evergreen region olives, figs, oranges, lemons, almond, kiwi and Japanese apples thrive best. In the mixed vegetation region chestnut, pomegranate, mulberry tree, grape vine and corn are bred. In the submonteane region corn, tobacco, pears and plums thrive best. Still, in the entire area of Ulcinj mostly the autochthonic fruit sort olive, from which for centuries in the area of Montenegrin coast oil of high quality is made, is bred. The households of Ulcinj mostly breed and collect olives, and in the cove Valdanos there are big parcels on which a great number of olive trees are planted. The season of collecting olives and producing high quality edible oil, usually lasts from November to February, but olive oil extracted by squeezing olive fruit, in a glass package, in the basements can be kept for several years, without the fear that its color, nutritional value and quality will change. Beside the olive tree Ulcinj coast is rich with south kinds of oaks, Mediterranean conifers, with wide treetop, among which the most typical representatives are white and black pine, marquis (laurel, myrtle, rosemary, and European holly) but also decorative exotic plants like palm tree, agaves, cypresses, and mimosas. In the fauna of Ulcinj mostly wild animals like: fox, wolfs, wild boar, rabbit, marten, squirrel prevail, and in the mountain region you can see wild dog (jackal).

For those who can resist the real call of nature, a real recommendation is the Ulcinj salt work factory. Because of the spacious, shallow and well-sunbathed pools, the salt work factory reminds on lagoons in tropical seas. This place in recent years is recognizable in both Europe and the World, as a favorite meeting place of funs of bird watching observation of birds. Still, in the time of picking, in the sections of the salt work factory, it is being transferred and tones of high quality, far famous salt is being packed, and because of that fact the salt work factory is considered a highly productive agricultural object. Salt work factory in Ulcinj is a unique ecosystem, which encompasses the area of 15 kilometers and gives ideal conditions for the hibernation and feeding of birds. During the winter months in the salt work factory more than 20.000 birds, mostly from the family of woodcocks is being registered. At the area around the salt work factory hibernate also: pelicans, ducks, cormorants, prey birds and songbirds. Also, in that area the rarest birds of the Montenegrin ornitoflora like for e.g. long footed goosefoot dwell, and in the area around the salt work factory its young ones grows Sheldrake, otherwise very rare bird which comes from the North areas. The unique, very dense woods of tamaris surround salt work factory in Ulcinj. In the past in the place where today salt work factory is located there used to be a swampy and very shallow soil of Zoganjsko Lake, which got its name by the Albanian river Zog which means bird. A famous researcher of birds of Montenegro, Ljudevit Firer at the end of the XIX century, wrote a record that in the area of the salt work factory at that time there were 39 nests of pelicans and numerous other birds. The experts for the world ecosystems have pointed out that the salt lake factory is also protected as an economic subject that there is no free access to that area, that the birds can be observed only from the car, and that the most significant ecological factor is peace.

However, beside birds in Ulcinj, more precisely in the mouth of the River Bojana, very attractive is also fishing of a fish called LICA, a big predator and a great fighter, whose pieces sometimes weight over 20 kg. Kind hosts will always gladly take you by boat to hunting and lead you in to the small secrets. If you are a hunter, underwater fisherman, fisherman etc. on River Bojana and on Porto Milena you can see numerous calimeras. Calimeras are ancient houses with attractive devices for a specific way of hunting fish, which has effectively kept until nowadays in this area. Aquatorium of Ulcinj is very rich with fish. A long time ago in the bay in big quantities was caught: sardella (sardine pilchardus lat.) while today there are found mostly: arbun (pagellus erythrinus lat.), surmullet (mullus barbutus lat.), sea perch (dicentrachus labrax), thin bleak (diplodus sargus lat.), sapa (sarpa salpa lat.), Canada thistle (sarda sarda lat.), and gof (seriola dumerili lat.). In a smaller number in Ulcinj aquatorium there are still: European cuttlefish, octopus, shells, crabs, oysters and finger like fishes.