rampart
Kotor

Kotor Nature

Boka Kotorska is situated in the south east part of the Adriatic coast. From the south east side Kotor is surrounded by the limestone massifs of the mountain Lovcen (1749 m), from the north west with the slopes of the mountain Orjen (1895 m), Radostak (1446) and Dobrostica (1570).

Near Kotor there are two peninsulas, on the North West Vitaljinsko peninsula, and on the south east Lusticko peninsula. Those two peninsulas are separated by the straits Ostro, with the point which is the outer penetration in the bay of Boka Kotorska.

Near by there are two other peninsulas, Vrmacko and Devesinjsko peninsula, which are separated by the gorge Verige. That gorge divides further bay of Boka Kotorska into two inner bays, Risan and Kotor bay, and on the two outer bays, Tivat and Topalj bay.

Experts in protection of the human environment, and urban areas agree in the fact that the territory of Boka Kotorska, viewed as a geo – morphological and vegetative – geographical entity, is very rich in nature. When we are talking about those characteristics, it is good to mention an unusual contrast of relief, the remains of the tectonic disturbances, lime surfaces, as well as the deciduous vegetation in the very coastal zone.


Boka Bay

Kotor is situated on the narrow plateau under Lovcen, on the east side of the Kotor bay. Its center is made of the Old town, which is surrounded by 4, 5 km long bulwarks which are stretched from the sea along the hill slopes of Sveti Ivan up to the fortress on the top. On the west side, along the shore, in the foothill of the hill Vrmac, we have lodgments Muo, Prcanj, and Stoliv, and in the east Dobrota, Orahovac, Perast, and Risan. Kotor municipality also has one part of Grbalj field, which is found in the south east from the bay. Together with the Upper Grbalj it goes out in the open sea. Near the cove Jaz, Kotor borders with Budva.

The summers in Kotor are warm and dry, and the winters are mild and humid. The average year temperature doesn’t surpass 15, 2 ºC. 213 days in a year are without any wind, and the swimming season lasts for 144 days. The climate affects a lot the development of vegetation in Kotor. Considering the fact that it spreads from Adriatic Sea and the karst background, the area of Boka Kotorska is found under the influences of the Mediterranean and mountain climate. When those two climates meet and mix a special kind of the sub Mediterranean climate is being created. Not only the climate but also the sea in the bay of Boka Kotorska has great importance. The sea in Kotor represents the accumulator of the warmth and the source of water steam, which is one of the most important factors along with the temperature circulation and the amount of rains in the entire area of Boka Kotorska for such a climate. Kotor spreads over the area of 335 km2. With the Mediterranean climate, the average air temperature in January is 7ºC and in July it is about 23 ºC.

Unique beauty of the Kotor bay is also expressed by the stone houses and captain’s palaces, which you can see along the sore of Kotor, as well as with the contrast of the sea and steep high mountains.

The bay of Boka Kotorska is the most southern fiord in the world. It is made of 4 bays: Kotor, Risan, Tivat, and Herceg Novi bay. Its total surface is 83, 7 km2, it has the volume 2, 4 x 106 km3, maximum depth is 60m and average is 27,3m. The length of the shore is 105, 7 km.

The climate in Kotor is sub tropic. Not only during the winter, but also in the fall and in the spring the rains are heavy. In the rear of the bay of Boka Kotorska, in the place called Crkvice, there is yearly 5317 mm of rain per square meter, which is the maximum of rainfall in Europe.


Boka Bay

Whether you’re coming to Kotor in the summer or in the winter, the picture of the Kotor landscape will catch your attention. The summer picture would be – mountains surrounding the Kotor bay are reflecting themselves in the clear blue sea, precisely brimmed with the sunbeams or the winter one which would be: the slopes of green mountains are partially or completely covered with snow, and along the Kotor shore you an fell the mixture of scents of citrus fruits, oranges, various flowers like: mimosas, camellias or other Mediterranean plants, whose seed for centuries has been traveling by sail boats and ships from the farthest spots on the globe, to Kotor, Risan, Perast, Stoliv, or Dobrota.

As well as in the majority of coastal towns in Kotor too mostly you can see various types of palm trees. Outside the Kotor bulwarks on the way towards Dobrota, on both sides you will se palm trees. The slopes of the mountains are covered with cypress, pine, oak and beech forests. There can also be seen wild and domestic pomegranate, figs, oranges, mandarins, grape, and olive. Numerous gardens in front of family houses or most often abandoned Kotor palaces have Mediterranean plants. Beside palm trees, there are various types of cactuses, oleanders, mimosas, magnolias, camellias and other kinds of Mediterranean plants which along with the won trophies in great maritime battles, Kotor traders and seaman brought as a symbol of beauty who remained synonyms of Kotor even today.

One part of the citizenship of Kotor is occupied in fishing. For fishing, they mostly set themselves outside the Kotor harbor, which is mainly intended for sailing in of the big world ships. In Kotor aquatorium there are mostly white fishes like: surmullet (Lat.mullus barbatus), sea perch (Lat. Dicentrarchus labrax), bogue (Lat. Boop boops), and more skilful and persistent fisherman can often catch the expensive white fish san pier (Lat Zeus faber).

Also, bay of Boka Kotorska is rich with blue fish. Most often those are: leer fish (Lat. Lichia amia), Atlantic bonito (Lat. Sarda sarda), and sometimes in Kotor aquatorium there were a lot of pilchard (Lat. Sardine pilchardus), which today is pretty much extinct, and it is becoming harder and harder to find it even in the famous Kotor market.

In Kotor there are several private growers of mussels or shells. Those growing places are situated next to the very stone shore. The majority of private managers from the mentioned growing places supply their own restaurants, hotels or motels with these very tasteful sea products.

During the summer as well as during the winter in Kotor harbor there are several smaller and bigger ships and luxurious yachts, or some other modern sailing objects anchored. In the recent years Kotor has a lot of foreign visitors. In Kotor harbor one can often see luxurious boats that are cruising around.

Further down the coast, towards Dobrota and Perast, along with the stony shore, we can see anchored barges. On the azure blue sea you can often see gulls and swallows, and smaller birds, while in the rear of Kotor, mostly in the hills, that surround the town, you can also see foxes, rabbits, squirrels, wild pigs and others…