Cut Procedures

Basic procedures for making clothes and other materials relevant for home are: spinning, weaving, knitting, coloring, embroidery and lace making.

Spinning – is completely same for wool, flax, hemp, brnestrina and silk. Spinning is done with the aid of two devices: with the aid of “preslica” (SPINNING WHEEL), and with the aid of “vreteno” (SPINDLE). There are various shapes of spinning wheels, and in Montenegro the most often ones are in the shape of a ball and in the shape of a spear. The woman who is spinning spins in that way that she holds the spinning wheel on her belt usually below the left armpit, on which the thread is found, and she hold the spinning wheel with elbow, while the spindle is found in her right arm. With the fingers of her left arm she pulls out the thread, stretching it to the thickness which she needs, and during that, from time to time she wets her fingers so that the fiber could tighten and twist better.

Weaving – is one of the oldest ways of production of fibers with mutual intertwining. Research data indicate us the fact that the skill of weaving was familiar to old Balkan and antique people, as well as to Slavs in the period when they settled Balkan Peninsula. In Montenegro women wove heavy cloth, linens, bags, saddlebags, table cloths,, milieus, rugs, various kinds of covers etc. There is a great number of techniques of weaving, and the most present one here is the horizontal one.

Knitting – Wool is a material which most often is used in knitting. Items made of wool are very warm and they were extremely significant for the North of Montenegro where the winters are severe. Tabards, sweaters, wool socks, shawls, gloves etc are usually knitted. Usually one needle is used for knitting though sometimes even 5 needles can be used for knitting.

Coloring – For dying (coloring) in the past people did not use the present day products. The color was obtained from various kinds of plants, from their fruits and roots. In Montenegro women mostly used, and by that also colored wool. Montenegrin women obtained black color most often by cooking of the bark and the leaf of chestnut or European ash, or on the other hand by cooking of the skin of a pomegranate. Yellow color was also obtained from the skin of the pomegranate, or from a wild apple, dark green was obtained by cooking of young leaves of mulberry tree or with mixing of black and yellow, they obtained brown color from the chestnut bark or from the leaves of the European ash, from which they also got the dark blue color. In the process of dying (coloring), depending on which color the women wanted to get, she added ashes, lampblack, soot etc.

Embroidery – was the most beautiful and most often used way of decoration in old Montenegro. it was made on the existing surface with various stings with wool, silk and cotton thread, and pretty often because of the influence of Islam it was also stung with golden and silver threads. With threads of various colors they decorated the cloths, covers, pillows, and many other items for house, as well as garment.

Lace Making – During the make up of the lace one uses cotton and silk threads and in Montenegro lace was mostly made in the coast. Among the most beautiful laces is the lace made in Boka with so – called white embroidery which is also known under the name lace from Dobrota. The oldest item of Dobrota lace which is preserved, and which today is being used as altar cloths, dates from the XVI century, while the majority of them, which are preserved, date from the XVIII century.