Kolasin

Kolasin was established by the Turks in the 17 th century. In the close vicinity of the town there is the always restless Tara river, as well as the Moraca river, and the town is surrounded by mountains, with Sinjajevina, Bjelasica, Kljuc and Vucje protecting this town from all sides. Kolasin is situated at the altitude of 954 m and offers excellent vacation in winter, as well as in summer time. Due to its altitude and favourable climate, Kolasin is considered an air spa. A special attraction for the tourists is the Biogradsko lake, situated in the National park “Biogradska Gora”, which contains one of only three preserved wild forests in Europe. Biogradsko lake is situated at the altitude of 1094 m and it has extensive footpaths all around.

 

Find more on : www.visit-montenegro.com , www.photo-montenegro.com

Kotor

Situated in one of the most beautiful bays in the world, Kotor, the town of traders and famous seamen, has a lot to tell. The old town of Kotor is the best preserved urban centre from the Middle Ages, typical for the towns that were created in the 12 th and 14 th centuries. The medieval architecture and numerous monuments of this cultural heritage have put Kotor on the UNESCO list of the “World Natural and Cultural Heritage Sites”. Throughout the city there are structures, interwoven by streets and squares. On one of them there is the St. Tripun Cathedral, the monument of the Roman culture and one of the recognised symbols of the city. Elsewhere, St. Luke’s Church (13 th century), the Church of St. Anna (12 th century), the Church of St. Mary (13 th century), the Church of Our Lady of the Health (15 th century), the Duke’s Palace (17 th century), Napoleon’s Theatre (19 th century) represent just one part of the rich treasures of the Kotor tradition. The carnivals and feasts organised each year give an additional charm to the most beautiful city on the Montenegrin coast. You simply can not afford to miss Kotor.

TOURISM

History

History of Kotor

Even though we are in the XXI century, the science still, unfortunately hasn’t established when the first lodgment in Kotor was founded. Historical resources, as the earliest period, which is connected to Kotor, mention the antique period. According to some other data, Kotor is 2 millenniums old, and its name stems from the word DEKATERA (from the old Greece KATAREO – meaning HOT). The written sources mention the "Upper town", which referred to the oldest part of the lodgment on the top of the hill Sveti Ivan (St. Ivan) (above Kotor), and the "Lower town", present Kotor.

The rich history of Kotor, is parallel to the rich culture of the town with which many conquerors ruled: the Illyrians, the Venetians, the Austrians, the French…

First the town was ruled by the Illyrians (III and II century B.C.). On the other hand the Romans are considered to be the founders of Kotor 168 B.C. – 476 A.D. Kotor was under their reign until the break of Roman Empire in 476 A.D. After the Romans, until the year 1185 Kotor was under the reign of Byzantium. Instead of Akruvijum, as Kotor was initially named, under the Byzantium reign Kotor is named DEKADERON.

The period from 1185 – 1371 Kotor remains one of the coastal towns which are a part of the Medieval Serbian state, under the management of dynasty Nemanjic. The dynasty Nemanjic, names the town Kotor, and they make Kotor a seaport, through which they have maintained connections with the west. During the reign of the Serbian dynasty Nemanjic, Kotor experiences a significant economical as well as cultural boon.

After Nemanjic dynasty, Kotor is being taken over by the Hungarians. The Hungarian King Ludvik, rules Kotor from 1371 to 1384. After that, Kotor is being governed by Bosnian King Tvrtko I (1384 – 1391).

The period from 1391 to 1420 Kotor is being an independent Republic. Because of the danger of the conquering the town by the Turks, in 1420 people from Kotor voluntarily, and with accordance with the decision of the Big council of Kotor, give the management of the town to the Venetian Republic. Until 1797 Kotor was under reign of Venice. Considering the fact that at that time Kotor was a battle field, the period until 1797 is thought to be the most dramatic and the hardest in the history of Kotor.

The history of Kotor also notes natural catastrophes. Several earthquakes have hit Kotor. Those were earthquakes in: 1537, 1563, 1667, 1729, and 1979. Kotor also survives years when the world was surrounded by a contagious disease – plague in: 1422, 1427, 1457, 1467, and 1572.

From 1797 to 1805 Kotor is a part of the Austrian empire. In 1806 year Russians come to Kotor. They governed the town only for a year – until 1807.

The French soon menace Kotor. As the Russian army was defeated by the French, in the battle near Fridland, Russian with a secret contract give Kotor to France, which rules over Kotor from 1807 until 1813.

Montenegrin ruler Petar I Petrovic helps people from Kotor in September of 1813. At that time Montenegrins and people from Boka (the other name for people from Kotor) fight together against the French Monarchy. So at that time there comes to certain unison of Boka and former Montenegro.

However that unison lasted only for 9 months, because Paris peace congress, which was held in 1814, didn’t acknowledge that unison, so after that conference (Boka with its surrounding) is being given to Austria (1814 – 1918).

A one hundred year old reign of Austria over Kotor was marked by numerous rebellions, and uprisings of the people from Boka Kotorska.

The liberation of Austria Kotor awaited in 1918.

As all other towns of former Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians, Kotor, which was exhausted by numerous occupations, awaited the biggest war ever fought – WW II, in the year 1941.

Kotor experiences liberation from the Nazi control in November 1944.

Legend

Kotor Legend

Kotor is a town with many diverse stories and legends. Its almost every part, every stone with which its streets are paved, palaces which surround certain parts of the town, monuments which it has, can tell a very nice story, a true story or some catch.

Already when we pronounce the word Kotor, we immediately recollect other parts (lodgments), which are also parts of Kotor like: Perast, Prcanj, Risan, Dobrota etc.

So when we are mentioning Dobrota, here is a story about its foundation:

Two travelers, who were traveling around the world, came to the grey sea. As they were already exhausted from the long trip, they sat on some kind of a rock to get some rest and to refresh themselves. One of them moved a little bit t a side and noticed a plaque with some inscription on it. The inscription said: "Measure 10 lengths dig and stop". When they read that, they wondered what could that be, so they started to guess together what that instruction could mean. At one moment they came to an idea to measure 10 lengths with the plaque, and so they did. When they measured the required length, they started to dig a small hole in the ground and they found some kind of a small chest.They tried to open it, but to their astonishment, the chest opened by itself.

At the bottom of the chest with golden letters it was written "this is everyone goodness". For a long time they thought what they should do?! Whether to stay where they are, or to continue their journey? Still, as the message was like some kind of a vow, they stayed in the place where they have found the message. At the same place they quickly made a cottage, and went to sleep.

During the night something very strange happened. From the wooden chest, some new shiny letters glimmered. The new message said: "Wish whatever you want before sleep"!!! As both of the travelers from the beginning of the story were poor, they wished for nice stone houses and beautiful wives. When they woke up in the morning they were speechless. They saw a white castle and a woman on the window looking towards the sea. They immediately moved into the new home, and continued to live in ease. Since that, every night before they went to sleep they wished for another nice house, of which every morning one emerged.

That is how Dobrota, near Kotor, was founded.

Stone houses and numerous palaces, which later were built, are the most beautiful details of Dobrota.

Culture

Kotor Culture

Kotor is surely the most famous Montenegrin town when we are talking about culture and cultural landmarks. At the end of XIX century, Kotor, that is bay of Boka Kotorska or the southern fiord, as that bay is lately called, because of its unsurpassable beauty, got the epithet of the Bride of Adriatic.

Its amazing beauty comes from the blue sea, stony shore, the slopes of the most famous Montenegrin Mountain Lovcen, greenery, which with the rocks above the bulwarks of the Old Kotor creates unusual natural colors. Its beauty is also created by the serpentines toward the fortress San Djovani (St. Giovanni) or Sveti Ivan (St. Ivan), medieval palaces, old town, and unavoidable, always cheerful spirit of inhabitants, whatever nation or religion they are.

Kotor has been a challenge for every tourist for centuries. Not so much in the sense of tourism, as it was challenging as a town of great cultural value with monuments of culture from the past, like its churches and cathedrals are. On every step that to you lay through the Old Kotor town you can for a while, at least through imagination, go back to Middle century, baroque age or the period when the pirates reined the world coasts. If you are for the first time in Kotor, the impression that you will have, we are sure, will be more convincing that the adventures from the movies that you have seen, or the books that you have read about those ages, or about this town. It has the tracks of Illyrian, and Roman culture, as well as pre Roman, Roman, Gothic, renascence, and baroque culture. Old town is counted into the Mediterranean towns with best preserved medieval urban settlement from the XII to XIV century, and is included in the list of the world cultural inheritance under the protection of UNESCO.

The Old town Kotor is on the list of UNESCO of the world cultural inheritance, since 1979. The medieval town Kotor is situated on the very end of the Bay of Boka Kotorska. Today Kotor is the biggest old urban settlement in Montenegro. The oldest archeologically noted edifice that originates from the VI century A.D. is the early Christian basilica found under the church of Sveta Marija Koledjate (St. Marija Koledjate) or Gospa od zdravlja (Virgin of health) in the immediate vicinity of the main town doors of the Old Kotor. Already in the Xi century Kotor gets its protector, Sveti Tripun (St. Triune) in whose honor the cathedral, which is today considered to be a symbol of Kotor, is being built.

Cultural richness of Kotor is invaluable. The treasury of the town hides the most significant cultural monuments like: Sat Kula (Watch tower) from the VIII century, Cathedral of Sveti Tripun (St. Tripun) from the XII century, Church of Sveti Luka (St. Luc) from the XII century, Prince’s palace from the XVII century, Church of Sveta Marija (St. Maria) from the XII century, Church of Gospa od zdravlja (Virgin of health) from the XV century, and Napoleon’s theater from the XIX century.

Kotor is surrounded by the town bulwarks, that is, the walls, around the town, walls above the town, and the walls around the hill as well as the fortress Sveti Ivan (San Djovani) on the top of the hill, which has the same name.

No matter from which doors or entrance in Old Kotor you are coming, the asymmetrical structure of the narrow streets and squares has numerous medieval monuments. Not just monumental edifices like the churches, cathedrals or museum monuments, but also with the ornament not only on the culturally – historical but also on the ordinary edifices, like family houses in which people still live. On the large number of family houses it is still very easy to notice the marks of the past epochs. Mostly those are ornaments that usually testify about the Roman Empire on these territories. You can see Roman marks, like numbers, sentences, lion characters, dragons, snakes etc… All around you can see baroque windows, big walls and richly and skillfully decorated arches.

In Kotor there are also numerous palaces: palace Drago, with Gothic windows from the XV century; palace Bizanti from the XII century; palace Pima, with typical shapes of renascence and baroque, from the XVI century; palace Grubonja, with a coat of arms of the old Kotor pharmacy, founded in 1326 year; palace Grgurin from the XVII century, which today is the building of the Maritime museum, as well as the Sat kula (Clock tower) dating from the XVI century, beside which there is a medieval pillory.

Historians mostly agree with the fact that the most important period for Kotor was the period of medieval century, and that is because of the fact that Kotor at that time experienced a great economic boon. Strongly developed economy soon influences the development of education, and extremely good progress of culture, art and construction. Already from the end of the XIII century in Kotor we have a grammatical school from which a multitude of humanistic writers and scientists came out. The first humanistic writers are mentioned on the transition from XV to the XVI century. We don’t know much about them, so the works that they have authorized were not preserved. Without any doubt the most famous poet was Bernard Pima, the descendant of the old and far famous Kotor noble family Pima. Only few of his verses in Latin, written in the Ciceron language were preserved. Then also we have a Kotor nobleman from the end of the XV century and the first decades of the XVI century Trifun Bizanti, and Kotor’s patrician brothers Vicko and Dominiko Buca. As a printer and a book editor, among more famous ones is Lord Jerolim Zagurovic.

When we are talking about the renascence literature it is good to mention Djordje Bizanti, who already in 1532 in Venice printed the verses in Italian and Latin. Still, the most fruitful renascence poet is Ludovik Pakvalic (1500 -1551) from Kotor. With the previous two, the poet Ivan Bona Borilis also marked the XVI century. Theological writers also have marked Kotor. One of the most significant was Luka Bizanti who governed the Kotor church for 4 decades.

Especially developed in that time in Kotor, was the art of cultivation (processing) of metals and stone, which made Kotor masters famous all over the Europe. The famous is also constructor and Kotor master Vito Trifunov or Vito from Kotor – a monk of a smaller church. According to some Kotor documents among 1326 and 1327 fray Vito constructed the famous monastery Visoki Decani (High Decani) in Serbia.

In the middle century in Kotor the so-called Greek painters worked. Among them were Nikola and Manojlo who painted at the beginning of the XV century. In the XIII and XIV century Kotor had its own pharmacy, and doctors, goldsmiths, gun blacksmiths and smithy, library, classical education, theologians, communal organization of the town, Statute, notary books… More than 5 centuries ago in Kotor a famous shopkeeper Marin Drusko lived. Also it is worth of mentioning the name of the famous trader and Kotor captain Marko Grgurovic.

Still, without any doubt, the greatest number of famous people from Kotor, come from Perast, a place close to Kotor, which has a lot of famous palaces. Among the famous people from Perast is Andrija Paltasic, a printer and an editor (1450 – 1500), who worked in Venice from 1477 to 1493. From the famous Perast family Zmajevic came writer and Bar archbishopric Andrija Zmajevic (1624 – 1694), and Vicko Zmajevic (1670 – 1745), a church politician and a writer…

The most famous representative of the well – known Kotor painting is the painter Tripo Kokolja (1661 – 1713) whose works of art are decorating the famous little church on the Island Gospa od Skrpjela. This painter of a very rich opus became famous almost in the entire Mediterranean.

The end of the XVII century is also an interesting epoch in the history of Kotor. On one hand it was marked by the collaboration of certain people from Kotor, especially from Perast in the Morej war (1684 – 1699). A very distinguished personality of that period was Vicko Bujovic, as well as the famous seaman from Perast Matija Zmajevic, who later became the Russian empire admiral.

The most famous Kotor seaman and the captain is by all means Ivo Vizin. In 1852, by going on a usual trading journey, with his smaller sailboat Splendido, by which a very nice hotel in Morinj near Kotor got its name, Vizin made the biggest naval project of the XIX century, by cruising from harbor to harbor, he sailed the world.

Long before Vizin, more precisely in 1823 a navigational officer Stevan Vukotic is being mentioned. Along with Vizin’s and Vukotic’s names, the history of Kotor remembers several other well – known seamen and captains like Petar Zambelic and Marko Ivanovic.

The collector of national treasure and folklore Vuk Vrcevic (1811 – 1882) was born in Kotor.

In the surrounding of Kotor, more precisely in the area known as Grbalj, the Cetinje’s archbishop and metropolitan of Montenegro Mitrofan Ban (1841 – 1920) was born.

More recent history gave also very famous people from Kotor. A world known man from Kotor today is Tripo Simonuti, a violinist and a free artist, born in 1932. with his daughters Ana and Irena he founded a chamber trio which is very well known even outside the borders of Montenegro under the name "Trio Simonuti".

Doctor Milos Milosevic lives and works in Kotor. He is a presents Boka navy admiral. It is important to mention a former professor on the Maritime faculty as well as on the Faculty of tourism Milenko Pasinovic, and a violinist Ratimir Martinovic who both work and live in Kotor.

 

Nature

Kotor Nature

Boka Kotorska is situated in the south east part of the Adriatic coast. From the south east side Kotor is surrounded by the limestone massifs of the mountain Lovcen (1749 m), from the north west with the slopes of the mountain Orjen (1895 m), Radostak (1446) and Dobrostica (1570).

Near Kotor there are two peninsulas, on the North West Vitaljinsko peninsula, and on the south east Lusticko peninsula. Those two peninsulas are separated by the straits Ostro, with the point which is the outer penetration in the bay of Boka Kotorska.

Near by there are two other peninsulas, Vrmacko and Devesinjsko peninsula, which are separated by the gorge Verige. That gorge divides further bay of Boka Kotorska into two inner bays, Risan and Kotor bay, and on the two outer bays, Tivat and Topalj bay.

Experts in protection of the human environment, and urban areas agree in the fact that the territory of Boka Kotorska, viewed as a geo – morphological and vegetative – geographical entity, is very rich in nature. When we are talking about those characteristics, it is good to mention an unusual contrast of relief, the remains of the tectonic disturbances, lime surfaces, as well as the deciduous vegetation in the very coastal zone.

Kotor is situated on the narrow plateau under Lovcen, on the east side of the Kotor bay. Its center is made of the Old town, which is surrounded by 4, 5 km long bulwarks which are stretched from the sea along the hill slopes of Sveti Ivan up to the fortress on the top. On the west side, along the shore, in the foothill of the hill Vrmac, we have lodgments Muo, Prcanj, and Stoliv, and in the east Dobrota, Orahovac, Perast, and Risan. Kotor municipality also has one part of Grbalj field, which is found in the south east from the bay. Together with the Upper Grbalj it goes out in the open sea. Near the cove Jaz, Kotor borders with Budva.

The summers in Kotor are warm and dry, and the winters are mild and humid. The average year temperature doesn’t surpass 15, 2 ºC. 213 days in a year are without any wind, and the swimming season lasts for 144 days. The climate affects a lot the development of vegetation in Kotor. Considering the fact that it spreads from Adriatic Sea and the karst background, the area of Boka Kotorska is found under the influences of the Mediterranean and mountain climate. When those two climates meet and mix a special kind of the sub Mediterranean climate is being created. Not only the climate but also the sea in the bay of Boka Kotorska has great importance. The sea in Kotor represents the accumulator of the warmth and the source of water steam, which is one of the most important factors along with the temperature circulation and the amount of rains in the entire area of Boka Kotorska for such a climate. Kotor spreads over the area of 335 km2. With the Mediterranean climate, the average air temperature in January is 7ºC and in July it is about 23 ºC.

Unique beauty of the Kotor bay is also expressed by the stone houses and captain’s palaces, which you can see along the sore of Kotor, as well as with the contrast of the sea and steep high mountains.

The bay of Boka Kotorska is the most southern fiord in the world. It is made of 4 bays: Kotor, Risan, Tivat, and Herceg Novi bay. Its total surface is 83, 7 km2, it has the volume 2, 4 x 106 km3, maximum depth is 60m and average is 27,3m. The length of the shore is 105, 7 km.

The climate in Kotor is sub tropic. Not only during the winter, but also in the fall and in the spring the rains are heavy. In the rear of the bay of Boka Kotorska, in the place called Crkvice, there is yearly 5317 mm of rain per square meter, which is the maximum of rainfall in Europe.

Whether you’re coming to Kotor in the summer or in the winter, the picture of the Kotor landscape will catch your attention. The summer picture would be – mountains surrounding the Kotor bay are reflecting themselves in the clear blue sea, precisely brimmed with the sunbeams or the winter one which would be: the slopes of green mountains are partially or completely covered with snow, and along the Kotor shore you an fell the mixture of scents of citrus fruits, oranges, various flowers like: mimosas, camellias or other Mediterranean plants, whose seed for centuries has been traveling by sail boats and ships from the farthest spots on the globe, to Kotor, Risan, Perast, Stoliv, or Dobrota.

As well as in the majority of coastal towns in Kotor too mostly you can see various types of palm trees. Outside the Kotor bulwarks on the way towards Dobrota, on both sides you will se palm trees. The slopes of the mountains are covered with cypress, pine, oak and beech forests. There can also be seen wild and domestic pomegranate, figs, oranges, mandarins, grape, and olive. Numerous gardens in front of family houses or most often abandoned Kotor palaces have Mediterranean plants. Beside palm trees, there are various types of cactuses, oleanders, mimosas, magnolias, camellias and other kinds of Mediterranean plants which along with the won trophies in great maritime battles, Kotor traders and seaman brought as a symbol of beauty who remained synonyms of Kotor even today.

One part of the citizenship of Kotor is occupied in fishing. For fishing, they mostly set themselves outside the Kotor harbor, which is mainly intended for sailing in of the big world ships. In Kotor aquatorium there are mostly white fishes like: surmullet (Lat.mullus barbatus), sea perch (Lat. Dicentrarchus labrax), bogue (Lat. Boop boops), and more skilful and persistent fisherman can often catch the expensive white fish san pier (Lat Zeus faber).

Also, bay of Boka Kotorska is rich with blue fish. Most often those are: leer fish (Lat. Lichia amia), Atlantic bonito (Lat. Sarda sarda), and sometimes in Kotor aquatorium there were a lot of pilchard (Lat. Sardine pilchardus), which today is pretty much extinct, and it is becoming harder and harder to find it even in the famous Kotor market.

In Kotor there are several private growers of mussels or shells. Those growing places are situated next to the very stone shore. The majority of private managers from the mentioned growing places supply their own restaurants, hotels or motels with these very tasteful sea products.

During the summer as well as during the winter in Kotor harbor there are several smaller and bigger ships and luxurious yachts, or some other modern sailing objects anchored. In the recent years Kotor has a lot of foreign visitors. In Kotor harbor one can often see luxurious boats that are cruising around.

Further down the coast, towards Dobrota and Perast, along with the stony shore, we can see anchored barges. On the azure blue sea you can often see gulls and swallows, and smaller birds, while in the rear of Kotor, mostly in the hills, that surround the town, you can also see foxes, rabbits, squirrels, wild pigs and others…

 

Top 5

Top 5 places in Kotor

 

Old Town

The old town – that is the most famous part of Kotor, where the Kotor history, culture, and tradition are being preserved. The old town of Kotor has a great number of monuments of the medieval architecture: churches, cathedrals, palaces, and museums. Its beauty is complemented with the multitude of narrow streets, squares, and markets. The old town of Kotor stands out also by the great number of stylishly made gates, palaces of the wealthy families, and a great number of stairs. The old nucleus of Kotor today is considered to be the best preserved medieval urban entity in the Mediterranean. The largest and the most impressive are, by all means, city bulwarks which surround the town. They are about 5 km long, 20, high, and about 10 m wide. Bring completely preserved, they are a unique sample of the fortification architecture in Europe. The beginning of their construction started in the IX century, in order for them to be added onto and arranged for the next 10 centuries. Bulwarks have 3 doors, through which for centuries people have came in and out of the town. From whichever door that you go into the town, the road will bring you to the most famous edifice – cathedral Sveti Tripun from the XII century, which is dedicated to the protector of the town – Sveti Tripun.

There are several squares in the town and the main, and the biggest city square is Trg od oruzja (Square of arms). That square was and remained the main place for gathering. Various gatherings happened there and it was the place where people from Kotor assembled. Cultural richness of Kotor is made priceless by its treasury which hides some significant cultural monuments like: Tower watch (VIII century), Cathedral of Sveti Tripun (XII century), Church of Sveti Luka (XII century), Prince’s palace (XVII century), Church of Sveta Marija (XII century), Church of Lady of Health (XV century), and Napoleon’s Theater (XIX century). Old Kotor has also numerous palaces like: Bizanti, Buca, Pima, Grgurin, in which today is Maritime museum.

In the Old town in Kotor we have the first Faculty of tourism and hotel keeping, as well as some music halls, Center for culture, galleries etc.

In the old town we have the greatest number of boutiques and trade shops. There are also some smaller shops and stores that offer footwear and clothes of the renowned European and world designers and creators. Except the boutiques and clothes stores, in the old town we also have a great number of souvenir shops, photo shops, jewelry shops, book stores, antique shops, hair dressing saloons, beauty centers, barber shops, cafés, pizzerias, etc.

If you decide to spend the entire day touring the old town, you will not make a mistake, because beside the research and getting to know with the town you can get refreshment in some of the numerous Kotor cafés. They are mostly found on Kotor squares. The old town of Kotor has also a large number of nicely decorated restaurants and hotels. In them you can try traditional specialties, as well as different Mediterranean food. In the old town there are also 2 hotels, in which you can accommodate yourself nicely, and pleasantly spend your holiday. The most important thing of all is to mention that the Old town of Kotor is on the list of the UNESCO world cultural inheritance, since 1979. From the same named institution Kotor was recently declared the world cultural inheritance in danger, so in the following period numerous European and world cultural institutions will give it even bigger attention.

Perast

Perast is surely one of the strangest, and by its history one of the most beautiful places in Boka Kotorska. Today it is often called the quietest town in Boka. Its narrow streets and numerous, mostly abandoned renaissance, and baroque palaces, testify about the former richness of the bay of Boka Kotorska, and about the days when there used to be led a luxurious life of its inhabitants. Perast used to be a town of sailors, and it was know by that even outside the space of Montenegro. We can see even today that famous stone housed and captain’s palaces standing out. There are 16 preserved palaces in Perast, among them is the baroque palace Bujovic at the very entrance in Perast. Other palaces are: Bronza, Sestokrilovic, Mazarovic, Balovic, Viskovic, Pavlovicini, Martinovic, Zmajevic and others.

All of them represent 12 Perast brotherhoods (clans). While along Perast you used to hear the sound of footsteps day and night, and while along the streets you could see the ladies of the rich seaman, and girls in love, walking, in the coves of Perast hundreds of sailing boats used to dock in, and today Perast is mostly an abandoned town, with barely 360 citizens. Even though the situation is like that, one should walk through Perast, and fill oneself with the spirit of renaissance and baroque. Perast during the winter has more sunny hours that the famous tourist places on the Azure coast.

Even though it doesn’t offer lots of events, Perast too is interesting during the summer. During July and August various festivities like traditional Fasinada – a ritual procession of barges and boast, which take stones with them which is then put onto the Island Gospa od Skrpjela, occur there. Fasinada is held in July. In August Perast is a host to the manifestation – Meetings of music clappers – in which competitors – singers compete in traditional singing which is present on the part of the Mediterranean which goes from Dalamatia to Montenegro. Because of the lack of beach zone, the coast of Perast is not suitable for beach tourism.

The Island Gospa Od Skrpjela

The Island Gospa od Skrpjela is one of two gorgeous islands in the bay of Boka Kotorska, which are situated in the sea across Perast in the Kotor municipality. The other island, which also should be visited, is the Island Sveti Djordje. That island is also called "the island of the dead captains", because according to a legend one French soldier, by shooting from cannon towards Perast, has hit a house of his beloved girl and killed her. That legend was a motive for the master piece "The Island of the Dead" by the Switzerland painter Beklin.

The Island Gospa od Skrpjela, was made as an artificial island, which according to the stories was made by the seaman from Perast and Kotor, who on their big sail boats brought big stones. On the island there is a church. According to a legend, fisherman from Perast, after a shipwreck near the island, have found a icon of the Holy Mother of God with the Christ on a sea rock, so as the customs say they vowed to build a church on the island. They have built the church in 1630. As the island had to be maintained, the seaman continued to bring the stones, so that tradition is alive even today. The custom from the old times was recently renewed. Today it is called Fasinada from Perast and it is held at the end of the day on the 22nd of July.

You can easily go to both islands from Kotor. The visit to the islands in the summer period can be a really interesting part of your entertainment during the day. The ride to the island can be organized as an excursion by tourist barges. A part of the cruising through the bay of Boka Kotorska includes the touring of the mentioned islands. The easiest way to inform yourself about those excursions is to go to Tourist organization of Kotor, to tourist agencies, or to go by yourself in Kotor harbor, and along the Kotor shore and to make arrangements with the owners of the tourists taxi boasts.

The Fortress Sveti Ivan

During the visit to Kotor you should, by all means visit the fortress Sveti Ivan (St. Ivan). It is situated above the bulwarks of the Kotor’s Old town. Climbing up to the fortress Sveti Ivan or as people from Kotor like to call it San Djovani, starts with the serpentines from the east part of the Old Kotor, which go to the very top of the fortress on 280 m above sea level. Before you set yourself to climb towards the fortress we suggest that you take your camera with yourself, because the pictures of Kotor and bay of Boka Kotorska, which you will see, can not be described in words, but instead they have to be first, experienced, and then noted, pictured. While you are climbing you can enjoy the sights of the Old town of Kotor.

Another reason because of which you have to visit fortress San Djovani is the fantastic view of the entire Bay of Boka Kotorska. The pictures of the Kotor harbor will also remain in your memory, which during the summer is usually filled with luxurious boats, yachts, sail boats etc.

Beside the serpentines by which you reach the fortress San Djovani, there are few resting places for those who are not in a good shape. A special indulgence will be the visit to the fortress San Djovani during the summer months. According to the announcements, the bulwarks of the fortress will be illuminated with special reflectors this summer, which will make the visit of the fortress San Djovani, and Kotor much more interesting to the guests and tourists.

Maritime Museum

Your visit to the Old town in Kotor can be supplemented with the visit of the Maritime museum, which is found on the Square of the Boka fleet. Whoever you ask or in whatever part of Kotor you are, and you ask someone about the Maritime museum, you will quickly get the information and come to the desired location.

Sailing in Kotor began to develop during the middle century, and the record of that is the narrative of the foundation of the fraternity of Kotor seaman, Boka fleet, in IX century. The memories on those long gone days and years, on the successes of the famous Kotor seaman, artists, ship builders, crafts man, states man, and diplomats, intermediaries between west and east, are today kept in the Maritime museum in Kotor, which is situated in the baroque palace Grgurin, and with due respect it preserves the fame of Boka and Boka navy. In the museum among other things one can find portraits of the famous captains, models of old galleys and sail boats, navigational instruments, and other very valuable exponents.

In the hole of the museum one can see six bronze tables in relief, on which the most important events and personalities from the tumultuous history of Kotor are displayed. Also, the museum has exhibited geographic maps, engravings and aquarelles of the coastal towns. There is also an ethnographic collection, which testifies of the golden age of Kotor navigation from XVI to XVIII century. In Kotor maritime museum a copy of the oldest document about the navigation in the areas of Boka dating from 1168, is being preserved.

Simply told in Maritime museum in Kotor all the treasure of our sea is exhibited. That treasure protects maritime traditions from oblivion, and connects the sea in Kotor with their people, famous seaman, who have sailed from it towards the far away seas. Next to the very entrance in the medieval palace Grgurin, there are two small cannons, which are symbols of the constant battle of the Boka seaman and pirates.

 

 

Find more on : www.visit-montenegro.com , www.photo-montenegro.com

Herceg Novi

Herceg Novi is the town recognised by the Mimosa trees and numerous steps. It is the town of “sun”, due to the large number of sunny days in the year. The heart of Herceg Novi is the old town, with structures that were built in the various epochs in history. The clock tower (1667), Kanli-kula (1483), Spanjola Fortress (1538) and the Forte Mare Fortress (1687), represent just one part of the cultural heritage of this town. Rich in greenery, Herceg Novi hides numerous types of tropical flowers. At the end of January the whole town is surrounded by the gentle fragrance of yellow and green Mimosa, so there is a feast called the Mimosa Festival, dedicated to this flower. During the summer months, there are other festivals in this town, which add to the tourist offer of this magical town.

TOURISM

History

History of Herceg Novi

Herceg Novi was founded 600 years ago (in 1382 year). The fortification facilities in the town – fortresses from the Turkish, Venetian, Spanish, and Austrian period- testify about those long gone days.

According to the most relevant historical data Herceg Novi was founded by the Bosnian King Tvrtko I Kotromanic, in the spring of 1382. Tvrtko I was also "the King of Serbs, Bosnia and the coast and west sides". Herceg Novi, was established in the former district Dracevica, in the Topalj bay (a part of the present day area Topla near Herceg Novi), and its former name was Sveti Stefan (ST. STEFAN). Except the present day name (Herceg Novi), the town was also known by the names NOVI, CASTRUM NOVUM, CASTEL NUOVO…

The present day name the town got during the reign of Herceg Stjepan Vukcic Kosaca, better known by the name Herceg Stjepan, and the wider area with which he ruled was know as Herzegovina. In that period (XV century) Herceg Novi experiences the greatest development and bloom.

The town was conquered by the Turks in the 1482, and they ruled Herceg Novi for almost 200 years. More specifically, Turkish reign in Herceg Novi ends in 1687 year. From 1687 to 1797 Herceg Novi is being ruled by Venetia.

Historical data testify of the short Spanish interruption of the Turkish reign of the town. According to those data, Spaniards rule Herceg Novi from 1538 to 1539.

Except the Turks and the Spaniards, Herceg Novi is being ruled by other great conquerors, and the historical circumstances have made that on the territory of Herceg Novi many people and many civilianization have reverted leaving great marks on the history, culture and economical development of the town and the surrounding.

Herceg Novi is also being conquered by the Venetians, who ruled the town until the final ruin of the Venetian Republic in 1797 year. The period after that is marked by often changes of the administrations which are governing the town. In the year 1797 the first Austrian administration was established in Herceg Novi which lasted until 1806.

For a year (1806 – 1807) Herceg Novi is being ruled by the Russians. The period from 1807 to 1815 in Herceg Novi is characterized by the French government under the authority of Napoleon. In a very short interval from 1813 to 1814, Herceg Novi is being taken over by the temporary government of Montenegro and Boka Kotorska, which are already replaced by the Austro – Hungarian government in 1815. From 1815 to 1918 we have the second Austro - Hungarian reign over the town.

With the crash of the Austro – Hungarian state in 1918, in Herceg Novi Serbian army has arrived. At that time the town enters the former Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians, or as from 1929 it was called Kingdom Yugoslavia. In 1941 Herceg Novi is being occupied by the fascists, first the Italians (1941 – 1943), and then the Germans (1943 – 1944). The town is being liberated by the partisan troupes at the end of October 1944.

Legend

Herceg Novi

Herceg Novi is a town which is situated at the very end of the bay of Boka Kotorska. The appearance of the town, as the experts say, is the most interesting mixture of the Romanic, Byzantine, and oriental style which is harmonized into a Mediterranean look of the town. Herceg Novi today is the town of flowers, a real greenhouse in the open. On the slopes of its hills there used to pass Turkish caravans, and in the foothill of the slopes there used to be held duels, combats, and there were also performed public punishments of the subjected citizenship by the Turkish conquerors. Still, many people belonged to this town for centuries. It was loved by the emperors, kings enjoyed in it; many army commanders have passed on their warrior glory in it. Many stories today authentically testify of those ages, of the foundation of Herceg Novi’s islands, fortresses, places, churches, capes etc...

We will on an interesting way tell you a story about the origin of the cape Kobila (MARE), which is situated nearby the town. A long time ago on Lustica (today a peninsula which is located at the entrance in Bay of Boka Kotorska on the right side) there used to live a boy and a girl who loved each other very much. One day they decided to go shopping in Herceg Novi. Tired from a long walk they finally reached Novi, and got some rest. As in those days it was preferable to go back home during the same day, they started quickly to observe what is being sold on the market. At that time the town was ruled by the Turks, and one could see them everywhere. The girl was very pretty, so she was noticed on the market by a Turkish aga (despot) who liked her a lot. Aga decided to kidnap the girl and he made arrangements about that with his tyrants. The soldiers sneaked up on the girl and kidnapped her. When the boy noticed that, he started fighting with the Turks. Still, the Turks managed to control the boy easily, and soon after they executed him, and took the girl with them. From that day on, no one from her close family knew what exactly has happened to her, or where is she. Still, one day the girl showed up in her birth town, on Lustica, but she was pregnant. People from Lustica claimed that she was carrying aga’s child, and that she has failed to respect the man she was supposed to marry, who was killed by the Turks on the market. When the girl died on giving birth to her child, the boy that she gave birth to was taken care of a little bit by everyone. Everyone’s and no one’s - the child was grown up at the mercy of the village, but in time he became very rebellious and brave men. In his youth he mastered handling the weapons, he hated the Turks and he seriously craved to clear his mother’s name. When he grew up, he founded a highway company. He often invaded Novi (today Herceg Novi) with his company. He kidnapped their wives, and ran away with lots of gold and silver on Lustica. He ran over the places: Sutorina, Njivice, all the way to the place called Rose, where he had mares waiting for him, which were especially prepared for loadings with treasure and kidnapped Turkish women. Loaded with all of that, he would come on Lustica. Still, on one occasion Turks managed to turn tables on to him, and they killed him. However, even after his death the mares have continued to faithfully wait fro him on the same spot for days, years and even centuries. That place got the name cape Kobila (MARE) by that legend.

Culture

Herceg Novi - Culture

Herceg Novi was sung by the poets, painted by the fine art artists; the tourism has been developed in it, but many people will tell you that "it is easy and simple to live in Herceg Novi" and that "it is even easier to belong to it". And indeed many famous and well known people have belonged to Herceg Novi. Many well known personalities were born or they lived in this town. Historically the most significant person of this town is surely the King Tvrtko I Kotromanic (1351 – 1391), at the same time the founder of Herceg Novi. By inheriting the throne from his uncle Stjepan II, Tvrtko is yet another ruler whose origins are directly connected to the Serbian dynasty Nemanjic. In 1283 Kotromanic began the construction of Herceg Novi, by building the fortifications on the places where today the center of the town is situated. The municipality Herceg Novi will soon promote the idea of raisin the monument to the founder of this town.

Famous army commanders and military leaders lived in Herceg Novi. One of them is the heir of Tvrtko I Kotromanic, Sandalj Hranic (1392 – 1435). The period of his reign in Herceg Novi was marked by the successful trade of salt.

Another heir of Tvrtko I Kotromanic, Stjepan Vukcic Kosaca (1435 – 1466), is a historically important person for Herceg Novi, because he significantly widened the territory of Herceg Novi during the XV century.

The foreigners that have found themselves in Herceg Novi in certain historical period, have written their names in the culturally – historical documents of the town. That was the case with the Portuguese doctor Isaija Koen (1517 – 1599). The doctor and later a poet Isaija Koen, was buried on the grave of the Spanish Jews in Herceg Novi, which used to be situated near the town, and which according to the written documentation sank into the sea during the big earthquake in 1667.

In the year 1664, a chronicler and a writer, Elvija Ibn Dervis Zili or Elvija Celebija, whose origin remained unknown, stayed in Herceg Novi. About his staying in that town Celebija wrote in details in his piece "Chronicle of the Travel", where he describes former Herceg Novi.

Beside Dubrovnik, Herceg Novi is also considered to be the birth place of Sava Raguzinski Valdislavic, a Russian diplomat (1670 – 1738). He worked on development of literacy, first in Herceg Novi monasteries, and then in other coastal and Montenegrin monasteries. At the end of the XVII century in Herceg Novi lived one of the Venetian army commanders, at that time the general provider of Dalmatia and Albania, Jerolim Korner. He sailed into Herceg Novi with a magnificent sailing boat in 1687, on the order of the Venetian senate. His mission was to take over and liberate Herceg Novi from the Turkish reign. His name will remain remembered because of the fact that only 10 days after occupying the town he issued a decree of the foundation of the land registry, whose original is even today kept in the State archive of Montenegro.

Another important person fro Herceg Novi is the bishop Savatije Ljubibratic, who transferred the administration from the monastery Tvrdos (Herzegovina) to Herceg Novi in 1695. His title of Bishop of the monastery was acknowledged the same year by the Venetian authority, and they gave him the land on the location where today a place called Topla is situated. His reign ended in 1716.

The history of Herceg Novi remembers also the name of Marko Vojnovic (1752 – 1812), the founder of the Great Russian Black sea fleet. An entire historical period of the family Vojnovic is characterized by the descendants who mostly had military, count and academic titles. On the shores of Persia Marko Vojnovic founded the first Russian station, and the history remembers him by his participation in the famous sea battle against the Turks in 1788 near the island Fidinisi.

One of the most important personas In Herceg Novi and Boka Kotorska in general, is Sveti (ST.) Leopold Mandic. On his baptizing he got the name Bogdan (GOD GIVEN), so his dedication to the church and monk life developed in the mark of that name. Already in his 16th year Leopold Mandic leaves the house and dedicates himself fully to the Lord. Leopold’s priest’s life lasted for entire 52 years. He was proclaimed a saint in 1983.

After finishing theology and after being a teacher in several great monasteries in Serbia, in Herceg Novi he comes as a church dignitary Nikolaj Velimirovic (1880 – 1956). Having settled in a place called Meljine, in the Savina monastery in Novi, for a long time he performs the church services. He published a book "Zapis o Boki" ("NOTE ON BOKA"). After that he leaves for Germany, and finishes his theology studies, and gets his PhD in philosophy on Oxford.

A significant place in the past of Boka and Herceg Novi takes a respectable family Zlokovic from the place Bijela. During the xx century that family gave some very important names, bishop gornjokarlovacki (of UPPER KARLOVCI) Sir Simeon, a historian Ignjatije Zlokovic, architect Milan Zlokovic, PhD of pedagogical sciences Djordje Zlokovic, and a publicist Maksim Zlokovic (1919 – 1996).

Herceg Novi is considered to be "a town of eternal greenery, sun and stairs". That was written by the famous Nobel Prize winner Ivo Andric. Andric often stayed in Herceg Novi and he experienced this town in a very unusual and to literates, very characteristic way. The house of Ivo Andric can still be found in Herceg Novi. In this town also often stayed and sought the inspiration for his works the Montenegrin bishop and poet Petar II Petrovic Njegos. During the XX century many other famous Montenegrin literates like Mihalo Lalic, Dusan Kostic stayed in Herceg Novi. For some time Herceg Novi was the seat of "Lovcen film" (LOVCEN MOVIE) (1952 – 1955), the first Montenegrin enterprise for display and production of movies, which was founded on Cetinje in March 1949, the first director of that enterprise was a man from Novi Simo Colovic, who lives even today in Herceg Novi. Herceg Novi is also an ideal town for painting ambitions. Except the writers and people of movies, that is also the town of painters. Especially fruitful and interesting during the XX century was the Secondary Artistic School in Herceg Novi. At that time the professors in that school were Yugoslavian postwar painters, and for that school, on a direct or an indirect way, were also connected Montenegrin painters, who acquired their fame in the world. Let’s just mention artists Miodrag (Dado) Djuric, Vojo Stanic, Milo Milunovic, Djordjije Bato Pravilovic… In Herceg Novi were also born and a part of the year they spend in Herceg Novi famous musician such as: Rambo Amadeus, Vlado Georgiev, Dragoljub Djuricic…

Herceg Novi is a sport town too. In that town already in 1926 a first water polo club in the former Yugoslavia – "Jadran", was formed. "Jadran" too gave birth to many national representatives such as: Djuro Radan, Milan Muskatirovic, Dejan Dabovic, Zoran Mustur, Stanko Zlokovic, and the legend of the world water polo Bozidar Stanisic – Cikota. That club also gave one of the greatest swimming coaches on the Balkans - Ivan Zuber.

Nature

Herceg Novi - Nature

Thanks to numerous natural beauties Herceg Novi gained name of town of sun, flowers and green. Its flora is especially interesting because in town and around it grows a few hundreds of various plants from all over the world. Herceg Novi is located at South part of Adriatic Sea. The town is located at very important and attractive region between mountain Orjen (1895 m) and one of the loveliest bays in the world Boka Kotorska. Orjen is famous for endemic plants, recreational walking paths, skiing in late spring and early summery months. There are near town hills Dobrostica (1570 m) and Radostak (1441 m), Peninsula Lustica with highest top Obosnik (585 m) and capes Ostro and Miriste 2900 meters wide. Herceg Novi has also rich and colorful village back that has 235 km2. As in other Littoral towns Herceg Novi has mild Mediterranean climate with dry and warm summers and mild winters.

Concerning climate Herceg Novi has some specialties that is specific microclimate conditioned by south exposition, karsts ground and mountainous back that prevent influence of clod air mass. These facts show that average year temperature in town is very nice of 16.2 degrees Centigrade with over 200 sunny days in year. In summer months (July, August) there are 10.7 sun hours a day. Sea temperature at Herceg Novi in summer is 22 C to 26 C with approximately same air temperature that enables bathing season that lasts up to 5 months. Characteristic winds blow in Herceg Novi and its surroundings as: Western, summer wind maestral; winter, north bura; south wind jugo and sporadically blow other winds as levant, tramontana Flora is quite interesting for in town and around it grow a few hundreds of different plants from all over the world. Rare flowers and plants grow in Herceg Novi.

The loveliest natural park is Savinska Dubrava with monuments from earlier and new history of this region. There and around it the most prevalent is mimosa (accacia decurrens, lat.) flower of yellow color. Mimosa is of Australian origin and is from family of acacia, it was brought to Boka Kotorska and Herceg Novi in the beginning of 20 th century. According estimation there are 5000 mimosa trees in Boka today. At Herceg Novi Riviera grows also magnolia (magnolia grandiflora, lat.) evergreen tree with marvelous velvet white flowers brought from North America. Cicas palm (cycas revoluta, lat.) also grows in Herceg Novi. It is very popular at Mediterranean and its origins are from Far East. It is also one of the oldest living species in the world. Agava (agave americane, lat.) is one more interesting plant with origin from East Mexico. To Herceg Novi was brought by Spaniards in mid 16 th century. Agava has antiseptic and curing substances. Famous plants are also lavender (lavandula officinalis, lat.), planika (arbutus unedo, lat.) bogumila (bougainvillea spectabilis, lat.)

Herceg Novi littoral and specially its back are rich with fauna. Apart various birds as swallows, sea gulls, hawks, smaller birds red breast, sparrows in the hills around Herceg Novi it is often met rabbits, fox, wolves, wild boars, martens, squirrels Under waters of Herceg Novi is also interesting. In blue water of Herceg Novi bay exist man species of fish that inhabit waters of Mediterranean. The most famous fish is dentex (dentex dentex, lat.) thanks to its delicious meat this fish was famous in Antic times and perhaps is the most famous kind of fish of Adriatic Sea and all Mediterranean. Dentex is most commonly seen during summer months at 10-20 meters depth. There is also lobster (palinuris elphas, lat.) that crab is the largest in waters of Adriatic. Lobster can be up to 50 cm long and 5 kg of weight. It feeds on fish, shells and other. Fishermen and divers in Herceg Novi bay often catch octopus (octopus vulgaris, lat.) it is from family of cephalopodes where are also cuttlefish and squid. Apart in waters of Mediterranean octopus are also in Atlantic Ocean. In waters at Herceg Novi often one can meet some other creatures of sea floor. Among them are: glowing worm (herm dice carunculata, lat.), sea urchin (arbacia lixula, lat.) worm (sabella spallanzanii, lat.) purple snail (flabellina affinis, lat.), cardinal (apogon imberbis, lat.).

Top 5

Top 5 places in Herceg Novi

Old Town

The visit to the old town of Herceg Novi, we are sure will make a great pleasure for you. Even though Herceg Novi is lot like many other coastal towns, come things make it special. Namely, it is the best fusion of history and culture, tradition and spirituality, past and modern time. It was founded by the king of Bosnia, Tvrtko I Kotromanic, and the town was initially called Sveti Stefan. The very historical data note that the town is about 6 centuries old, and of the tumultuous history of the town testify the fortresses inside the bulwarks of the Old town (Spanjola, Citadela, Forte Mare, Kanli kula), and of course numerous palaces and churches. Many culturally historical monuments and cultural edifices of modern age today, preserve the spirit of Christianity and represent a treasury of artistic and cultural wealth.

For a long time the old town of Herceg Novi was the intermediate in trading connections with the neighboring states, and it was a rival to Dubrovnik. The old town is surrounded by the wall which was built from XIV to XIX century. If you intend to tour through the Old town of Herceg Novi, except the already mentioned fortress Forte Mare (XIV century), Kanli kula (XV century), we suggest that you think about the visit of the central part of the old urban core, which has two big squares in it: the Square of Herceg Stjepan with the church of Sveti Arhandjel Mihajlo and the Square Mico Pavlovic with the church of Sveta Jeronima. The town also has artistic galleries, national library, city archive etc...

The trademarks of the Old town in Herceg Novi are also the stairs or as people from Herceg Novi call them SKALINE. At the majority of the narrow and beautiful Herceg Novi streets, the stairs are very long, and to tourists and guests of the town they are very strenuous for climbing and walking. However, the numerous stairs do not have to be tiring if you see them as a way of recreation.

Homeland Museum

There are few towns in Montenegrin coast which have the museum such as Homeland museum of Herceg Novi. Even though as a significant cultural institution of the town it was founded in 1949, the building of the museum is over 150 years old. That building was constructed at the end of the XVII century in late baroque style. The homeland museum of Herceg Novi is actually a legacy of one of the most famous men from Herceg Novi, that is one of the mayors of the town Marko Komnenovic (1870 – 1941), and his wife Olga. With the will that Komnenovic family has left in 1940, the wish that their house is turned into a "city museum" was carried out. As a part of the homeland museum you can see some very valuable collections. Botanical collection, which has more than 100 selected kinds of Mediterranean and sub tropic flower, and also you can see various kinds of palm trees, agaves, cactuses, aloes etc

As a part of the archeological collection the items from the pre historical civilization of the town and the surrounding are being preserved. As a part of the ethnological collection you can see numerous amphorae, old ships etc… The museum also keeps instruments that were used in agriculture, cattle breeding, olive breeding etc... Also, it is interesting to see the collection of 30 icons, mostly works of the old Kotor icon painters.

Bijela

The place Bijela is 13 km away from Herceg Novi. Bijela is more and more mentioned as a synonym or the homeland of exquisite Boka ship builders. Even today there is a ship building industry, because the tradition of reparation and ship building stems from the time of the founder of Herceg Novi, Bosnian king Tvrtko. The skillfulness of ship building to the masters from Bijela the famous and well known masters, or as they are locally caller MESTRI, from Korcula (Dalmatia) used to transfer. You can visit Bijela if you are coming to Herceg Novi or some other coastal town by a vessel: yacht, sailing boat etc… If you are a great aesthete, and you enjoy the touring of cultural historical monuments, or you are a fun of old edifices, then in Bijela you can visit one of the significant historical sights is the church Rize Bogorodice (RIZE HOLY MOTHER OF GOD) from the XIV century. It has some very valuable frescoes. In the vicinity there are also some other churches such as: Sveta Gospoda (ST. GENTELMAN) (XVII), Sveti Petra (ST. PETER) (XIX), as well as the church Sveti Vraci (ST. SORCERERS).

Bijela also has two very nice hotels: "Park" and "Delfin". Also, if you like Bijela that much that you wish to spend the rest of your holiday in it, there are private boarding houses, cafés, restaurants and of course nicely arranged beaches.

Igalo

Igalo is far famous Montenegrin healing place. It is a part of Herceg Novi. The most famous health complex – Institute Dr Simo Milosevic is placed there. For the improvement of the health condition of the patient in Igalo various techniques are used such as: massages, electro therapies, hydro massages, healing water in the pools, healing mud etc...

The staying and the services of the rehab center in Igalo, are not just used by the patients with heavy injuries, rheumatic and extremity disorders, but also by the sportsmen, and convalescents.

In Igalo came, as people say, many hopeless cases in wheelchairs, and they went back home without them and on their own feet. Especially in the recent years in Igalo stay mostly tourists from Scandinavia, mostly Norwegians. The guests of Igalo were also many famous and well known people. Still, the man who spent a lot of time in Igalo was the former president of SFRJ (ex Yugoslavia), Josip Broz Tito. Because of the necessities of summer vacations and rest of that statesman the still existing villa "Galeb" (GULL) was built, which lately is mostly used as a residential facility of the Government of the Republic of Montenegro. You can easily come to trip areas Zanjiceor Njivice from Igalo by using the transport of taxi boats and barges, or you can visit the famous cave "Plava spilja" which according to the testimonies of numerous tourists is a real "temple of the god of the sea".

Mountain Orjen

People from Novi say that Herceg Novi Riviera can best be seen from mountain Orjen. If you are decisive in the intention to spend one day of your vacation in walking up the mountain Orjen, except the good will and desire for such an undergo, you will only need a camera. Orjen is situated at 1.895 m height above sea level. And when we tell you that from Orjen, during the sunny days, you can see with your bare eye the entire Montenegro, and a part of the neighboring Herzegovina, Dubrovnik coast and several southern islands in Dalmatia, then, we are sure, that you will want to go to Orjen as soon as possible. Herceg Novi also has well organized mountain climbing associations, and the path through which you will climb to Orjen is very well marked. Except by walking – on the asphalt, to Orjen or to the mountain Subra you can come driving a jeep safari, over the macadam road. The massif of Orjen even today is considered to be an area with enormous amounts of precipitations (rainfalls) because the village Crkvice, in the east side of the mountain, is the rainiest in Europe with 5 m of water drags per year. Also, the entire area of the mountain Orjen is rich with flora and fauna, and mostly with healing herbs and mushrooms which you can pick only if you are a botanist or a good connoisseur of plants.

 

 

Find more on : www.visit-montenegro.com , www.photo-montenegro.com

Tivat

Tivat is situated in the central part of the Kotor Bay area. It has a lot of interesting and attractive features. The renaissance summerhouse, Buca, in the centre of the city, the Flower island, with the sacred monuments, Gornja Lastva, the old community at an altitude of 300 m, the beautiful sandy beach of Plavi Horizonti (the Blue Horizon) and St. Nikola island, represent the tourist places that should be visited here. In the town itself there is a natural marina, Kaliman. Tivat is the only coastal city with an airport. Among the cultural events, we should mention Bocarska Olimpijada and Ljetnje Feste (summer feasts).

 

Find more on : www.visit-montenegro.com , www.photo-montenegro.com

Budva

Budva is the metropolis of the Montenegrin tourism, due to the numerous beaches that attract the tourists with their beauty, thus transforming this place into the most wanted tourist destination. Apart from the natural beauty of the coves, islands and beaches, Budva is rich in historic monuments as well. The old town lies on a small peninsula and represents a treasure chest of the cultural heritage. It is intersected with numerous streets and squares, with important buildings such as the Church of St. Trinity, the grave of the famous writer Stjepan Mitrov Ljubisa, the Church of St. Ivan, the Church of Our Lady and the Church of St. Sava. During the summer period it is transformed into the Theatre city, where numerous foreign and local plays are performed. In the old town you can visit various boutiques, cafs, restaurants and galleries. The monasteries of Stanjevici, Podostrog, Rezevici and Gradiste represent significant historic and religious monuments of Budva. Budva has the coast line of 21 km, with 17 beaches. It is one of the most beautiful coasts in the world and its beauty will not leave you indifferent.

TOURISM

History

History of Budva

Budva a modern town at the very edge of the Adriatic seashore - has a rich historic past. Ancient history goes back to the 5 th century BC. According to numerous legends, Budva was the first town of the Illyrians. Its first inhabitants were the King and Queen of the historically known city of Thebes King Cadmus and Queen Harmonia. Already in the 2 nd century BC, Budva fell under Roman rule. Trading had developed by that time and the inhabitants were also cultivating grapes and olives. After the destruction of the Roman Empire, a period of Byzantine rule began. The people of Budva began their fight against Byzantine rule in 535 AD and finally succeeded when the Serbian Nemanjic dynasty came to the Montenegrin coastline (1184-1186).

The strongest growth of Budva was experienced in the Middle Ages, during the rule of Tsar Dusan. Budva even had a Statute that decreed the living conditions in the Middle Ages. Budva fell under the rule of the Venetian Republic in 1442. Apart from the pressure of the Venetians, Turks also troubled the inhabitants of Budva. They frequently attacked Budva and surrounding places and fought with the Venetians; in fact, Budva was under attack from both sides of this war, right up to beginning of 18 th century. In 1807 Budva was occupied by the French and in 1813 fell under Austro-Hungarian occupation, which ruled it for the next 100 years. Destroyed and reduced to poverty under the Austro-Hungarian rule, Budva was now at the beginning of WWI in 1914. Freedom from the Austro-Hungarian Empire finally came in 1918. This was only a short-lived break though and at the beginning of WWII, in 1941, Italy occupied Budva and its surrounding area. Liberation from Nazi rule was celebrated in Budva on November 22, 1944.

Legend

Legend on Genesis of Budva

Budva and its inhabitants hold two mythical legends on the genesis of the name Budva. BUTHUA, BUTOBA, BUTUA today Budva is said to have derived its name from the most famous and authenticated story on the genesis of town's name, from the time of Stephanus of Byzantium from the 6 th century AD. It is written in the story of Philo of Byblos, from the 2 nd century AD, that the founding of Budva was connected to CADMUS, founder of the city of Thebes and mythical son of Phoenician King Agenor. Cadmus and his wife Harmonia were expelled from Thebes and in an oxen coach headed to the country of Enchilei (people of eels, the oldest known inhabitants of the region of Budva), where they founded a new city BOUTHOE Budva. According to this legend, Budva gained its name after the oxen (BOUS Greek for ox), that brought Cadmus and Harminia to Budva. According to other sources, Harmonia gave birth to a son, Illyrius. However, because of a murder that Cadmus had committed in his youth, punishment from the Gods was visited upon the couple and, according to the legend, Cadmus and Harmonia were turned into snakes.

Culture

Budva Culture

Apart from tourism Budva is a town of culture. Not only because of its extremely valuable heritage but also due to the constant influence and mixing of different cultures from land and sea (Hellenics, Venetians, French, Austro-Hungarians, ), the cultural dimension of Budva always mingles through the social life of the town. Authentic monuments from ancient times even today vividly testify to its cultural heritage: numerous churches, monasteries, fortresses, The most attractive and oldest is the Old Town of Budva (Stari Grad), where the greatest numbers of monuments are located. Apart from the history and culture, its famous inhabitants carried the spirit of Budva through the centuries. Budva gave birth to many celebrities of paintbrush and pen. To mention a few: Todor Vukovic - painter from Maine, 15 th century, and Krsto Ivanovic writer of the chronicle of Budva, 17 th century.

In the 18 th century the well-known count Stjepan Zanovic lived in Budva, enjoying, from early youth, an adventurous, careless and relaxed life-style. Another important inhabitant of Budva was the painter of rich art works, Anastas Bocaric, 17 th century. Educated in Athens, he dealt with sculpture, calligraphy and applied arts. At the same time he taught his brother, Spiro Bocaric, who was educated in Venice. He painted numerous portraits and landscapes. Undoubtedly the most famous man of Budva was a philosopher, writer and statesman who was renown even outside Montenegro, Stefan Mitrov Ljubisa, 19 th century. Even during his lifetime, he was proclaimed to be the best storywriter of that era. He became famous by gathering and documenting national habits and customs and thus saved the national language from oblivion.

Coming to the 20 th century, there are other renowned and famous public and scientific workers. As the most important we should mention the brothers Miroslav and Stevan Luketic. Miroslav Luketic PhD was a famous historian and writer of chronicles. His brother Stevan Luketic was a world famous sculptor. The painters Slobodan Slovinic and Jovan Ivanovic were born and lived in Budva.

Nature

Budva Nature

The warm Adriatic Sea washes Budva, with a surrounding area of 122 square kilometres and 25 kilometres of coastline. The climate in Budva is typically Mediterranean, meaning mild winters and hot, mostly dry summers and an average of 2,300 hours of sunshine per year. Budva is not distinguished by large differences in temperature and this recommends it to tourists even more as a place for the ideal holiday. The bathing season starts in early May and lasts till mid November.

The Adriatic Sea is full of flora and fauna, including green, black and red algae. In the waters around Budva are many kinds of fish: gray mullet (lat. Mugil cephalus), dentex (lat. Dentex dentex), bamboo fish (lat. Sarpa salpa), granper (lat. Scorpaena scrofa), gilthead (lat. Sparus aurata) and even greater amberjack (lat. Seriola dumerini). Even on the sea floor there is an abundance of life: octopus, cuttlefish, squids, lobsters, mussel, oyster and date-shells, a real Noah's Ark.

With its fauna and flora Budva is similar to other coastal places, with palms, oleanders and mimosas. There are also wild and domestic pomegranates, fig, orange, tangerine, grapes, and olive-trees. Budva and its surrounding area is also an important producer of olives. Care for the olive tree has lasted for centuries and from ancient times it has been considered a holy tree as well as tree of peace. How much it was esteemed in the past is confirmed by historic evidence that a few centuries ago a young man could not get married unless he had planted 30 young olive trees. Along the beaches of Budva, the scent of pine and cypress trees spreads far and wide. Green and colourful, many rows of cypress and pine trees can be found all over Budva, attracting many visitors who enjoy the experience of resting in the hotel, town or forest parks. Besides swimming and the beach, the joy of a holiday in Budva is complemented by such places and you encounter them at almost every step. Budva is rich in fauna and in the parks you can often see squirrels, whilst the region is also populated by other wild life: weasel, otter, rabbit, marten, wild boar, fox, even fallow deer, as well as various kinds of birds: sea-gull, swallow, eagle, sparrow

Top 5

Top 5 Places in Budva

Old Town (Stari Grad)

Old Town is the trademark of Budva. Originally built on an island, a sand isthmus developed between it and the main land and so it became a peninsula. Old Town Budva is a unique architectural and urban unit that was already mentioned as a settlement in ancient times. According to these sources, Budva is over 2,500 years old and one of the oldest urban centres around the Adriatic Sea. The walls of the Old Town were, and still are, as much of an attraction to residential homes as for tourists, who come to visit from the furthest parts of the world. They were built in the Middle Ages when this region was ruled by the Venetians.

The Old Town twice suffered from natural disasters when strong earthquakes struck, first in 1667 and again in 1979. On your first visit to the Old Town of Budva, you might think that you have entered a labyrinth, with lots of narrow streets, squares, walls and towers from the late Middle Ages. Today, the ground floors of many houses have been converted into art galleries, shops, cafes, boutiques, Within the Old Town is the city fortress, Citadela, dating from the 5 th 6 th century AD, which is now used as the summer stage for the famous Theatre City cultural festival. In the Old Town are also the churches of St. Ivan (a monumental three-nave basilica, built in the 7 th century AD), St. Mary's of Punta (the oldest building, dating from 840 AD) and the Holy Trinity (built in 1804).

St. Stefan

The hotel-town of Sveti Stefan is today best known as a jet-setter's summer residence. Connected to the main land by a sand isthmus, such islands are very rare and called "tombolo". The famous Pastrovici tribe used this location in the 15 th century to defend itself against their enemies and even today gun openings and guns remind one of those times. The interior of the hotel-town is made up of narrow, winding streets. There are small picturesque squares, three churches and the hotel apartments are in elegant houses of Mediterranean style.

Sveti Stefan today breathes with a spirit of the summer residence for elite tourists and those seeking the exotic. When, at the end of the 1940's, a decision was made to turn the island into a tourist facility, Sveti Stefan started writing a new chapter in its long history. Its fame, up to the present, comes from its illustrious visitors, such as actors, singers, scientists and the presidents of many of the countries of the world. At Sveti Stefan, visitors have included the British Princess Margaret, former Italian King Umberto II Savoy and famous actors Sophia Loren, Carlo Bruin, Kirk Douglas, Doris Day, Geraldine Chaplin, Sidney Poitier, Richard Widmark, Sylvester Stallone, Jeremy Irons the list goes on. Famous writers Andre Marlow and Albert Moravia, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, celebrated Chess Grandmaster Robert Fischer and one of the world's beautiful women, top model Claudia Schaeffer. Most of the mentioned crowned heads stayed in the famous villa 118, which is part of the town-hotel complex Sveti Stefan. The price of accommodation for this exclusive villa is negotiable, by bargaining with the lodger and a starting price of around 1,500 EUR per day.

In 1972 Sveti Stefan received the Golden Apple prize for being the most exclusive summer residence in the world. In close vicinity is Hotel Milocer, once the summer residence of the King. Today, Hotel Milocer is completely surrounded by a pine forest, with marvelous parks made of colonnades of pine trees, neatly kept smaller parks with colourful flowers, two beaches and footpaths that lead along a small hill overlooking the town-hotel Sveti Stefan. Having lunch or dinner in the gardens of Hotel Milocer, with its refined white stoned walls, is an especially charming experience. Such natural surrounding have made the neighbourhood around Hotel Milocer an ideal location for tourists with a more refined taste. It is the perfect place for lovers enjoying a break in this quiet area, disturbed only by the chirping of birds or the hubbub of bathers.

Island St. Nikola

The attractive island of Sveti Nikola is popularly called 'Hawaii near Budva' and is another one of the many attractions of the Budva coast. According to some sources the island was once connected to the town with an isthmus called 'tunja'. The easiest way to arrive on the island's beaches or its many bays is by taxi-boat or dinghy. Once you reach your destination, clear transparent seas await you with the blue skies, sunrays and the scents and tastes of the Mediterranean. Day trips to the island offer bathing or exploring depending on your own preference, with the simplest being just to enjoy the sea, the peace and the Mediterranean atmosphere. Today, part of the island is private property but there is a new restaurant, two well kept beaches and the building of a marina is planned. The island is full of wild life: fallow deer, rabbits, deer, birds as well rare plants and is covered by thick conifers, pine and juniper forests. A large part of the island reminds one of the remotest regions of the world looking for a new Robinson Crusoe.

Petrovac

Once called Kastel Lastva, Petrovac is a small but pretty town by the sea, approximately half way between Budva and Bar. It was first mentioned as an inhabited place between the end of the 18 th and beginning of the 19 th century. The town, located on a sandy bay, is surrounded by a thick pine forests. Originally it was primarily a fishing village but the pine forests and olive groves, the warm clear sea and the beautiful beaches have made Petrovac a place to which visitors return year after year for their holidays. Lucice beach is full of visitors during the summer months but despite this popularity its attractiveness has remained largely unspoilt. The beach is only 500 metres south from the centre of town. Nightlife in the town runs mostly from the Petrovac promenade towards the hotel Rivijera. During the summer the cafes are full of young people enjoying the sounds of modern music and dance coming from the open terraces and disco clubs.

Ethnographic Museum

The City Museum of Budva is located in the heart of the Old Town. Although Budva's history dates back over 2.5 millennia, it has only had a museum for the past twenty years. The town museum offers visitors articles depicting Budva from the very beginning of its establishment up to the present. There are various artifacts with Hellenic marks, vases, jewelry, decorations, tools and silver as well as artifacts made of glass and clay with unusual shapes and designs. Silver cutlery and other pieces that lay undiscovered for years are now kept in the museum of Budva. These artifacts bear witness to the life and historic conditions of this part of the Mediterranean and the ethnic genesis from the mixture of many different cultures: Illyrians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Slavs and others.

 

 

 

 

Find more on : www.visit-montenegro.com , www.photo-montenegro.com

Bar

Bar represents a modern town that is expanding every day. Although it is a port town, it is amazingly clean and has many developed green areas. Around it there are many tourist attractions. The old town of Bar, Haj Nehaj Fortress, with the remnants from the 15 th century fortress and the castle of King Nikola, represent the historic and cultural monuments of this town. There’s an olive tree that is more than 2000 years old and Skadar lake, with one of the biggest habitats of birds, as well as a large number of monasteries and churches for the visitors who enjoy this type of tourism. Numerous festivals and cultural events, such as: the International TV Festival, Meetings Under The Old Olive Tree, the Bar Chronicle. Developed beaches and coves such as Canj and Dobre Vode will make you come back to Bar.

TOURISM

History

Bar is a very old town. There are no precise data of its origin, but in historical sources the name Old Bar is for the first time mentioned in IX century under the name Antibareos (Anti-old). According to information from some other sources the origin of the town is considered to be between VI and VII century, because at that time in Bar there was a characteristic roman settlement.

Even though there are very few precise data about the time of foundation of the ancient Bar, the remains of Neolithic material were found on a wider space, various items like: aeneolithical ax, dagger, vases of unusual manufacture etc., testify that in the area that today is municipality of Bar there was life even in pre-historical, Illyrian, Greek and Roman era. Still, the greatest confirmation of that thesis is a 2000 years old olive tree, which is situated in a place called Mirovica, which testifies in another way that in the area of Bar, there was life even before more than two millennia. That Bar indeed is an old urban settlement confirm the names of town: Greek – Antibareos, Roman – Antibarum, and Slovenian – Bar.

At the end of the IX century Bar is mentioned also under the name Antivari, which according to historical sources, can associate on the tribe of the Avars, who in VI and VII century, along with the Slavs settled the area that today is Montenegro.

Even though it was settled by Slavs at he beginning of VII century, until the middle of XI century Bar remained under control of Byzantium, more precisely, at that time Bar was placed in the region Dirahion, historically more familiar under the name of Prevalis. That Bar was a very important spiritual, cultural and political center tells the fact that until the middle of VIII century Bar was the center of bishopric. For the capital city of the first nominally independent ruler of the first Montenegrin state – Duklja, prince Vladimir, an area only few kilometers away from Bar toward the Skadar lake, village Krajina in place Ostros, 50 kilometers away from Bar is mentioned. Considering that that area was however in the structure of Byzantium Empire, in the year 1042, in the famous “Battle of Bar”, that was fought on the hill-side of Rumija, that part of the Bar territory is being freed (liberated) by the ruler of Zeta Vojislav (1017 – 1050).

It is being supposed that, already in year 1077 in Bar the first Montenegrin king Mihailo Vojislavljevic was crowned, and as a confirmation for such act, he received royal indications from Pope Clemet III. Afterwards, Bar is being ruled by the king Bodin Vojislavljevic (1082 – 1101). Because of Bodin`s effort in the year 1089 bishopric of Bar receives the title of archbishopric, and as a result of that town Bar becomes the center of Bodin`s state. In the middle of XI century Bar again becomes a part of Duklja, and after 1183 it again enters into the structure of Byzantium empire, when with the rest of Zeta it becomes part of the state of Nemanjici. Bar is under the control of Nemanjici up to year 1360. During that time it experiences a full bloom - it had town autonomy, a statute, a coat of arms and money.

In historical documents it is said that, in the middle of the XV century Bar gained victory over Dubrovnik. During the 60`s of the XIV century, Bar is ruled by Balsici, a royal family that created an independent territory in the area of Skadar. During that period princess Jelena and Balsa III consider Bar their capital.

Afterwards, for a long time, Bar is found in constant battles and quarrels between the county landlords.

In the year 1404 Bar is taken over by Venice (Venetians), which in the year 1412 it would fall again in hands of Balsici.

In the year 1421 Bar was under patronage of despot Stefan Lazarevic, and from the year 1427 it was under patronage of despot Djuradj Brankovic – when it again becomes the capital of Zeta.  

By despoiling (seizing) the town from a well-known Bosnian lord Stefan Vukcic Kosaca, in 1443 Bar with its coastal areas is being conquered by Venetians. After the Venetian ruling, Bar is being attacked by the Turks. Defending from Turkish invasion, Bar in order to preserve permanent peace, asked Venice for help, in which they failed.

The Turks, who had ruled over that territory for 307 years, conquered Bar in the year 1571. In 1878, Bar is being liberated from the Turks by Montenegrins. The same year, 1878, on Berlin congress Montenegro was proclaimed independent, so town Bar gained great significance and reputation. As during the liberation in 1878 Bar was deeply ruined, Ministry counsel of the Principality of Montenegro in 1908 makes a decision to begin the construction of a new town, that will be named Bar.

In time a large number of citizens of Bar begins to move in Southern parts of the town, mostly inhabiting the region beside the sea shore, where in the beginning of the XX century appears an area better known as Pristan (Port), on whose place was lied the foundation of New Bar. Today New Bar is considered to be urbanistically most organized, modern architectonic compound in Montenegro. Wide boulevards decorated with palm trees, oleanders, and other exotic Mediterranean trees that is delicately preserved and taken care of, with the cordial care of public workers, have made that several years in a row (mostly in the last decade of the XX century), Bar was proclaimed for the cleanest town in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

Like in other coastal towns until 1928 Bar was under Austria-Hungary administration. After liberation from Austria-Hungary, until 1941 Bar is a part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (the state of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians).

The Second World War (1941 – 1945) Bar was under foreign control. At that time, Italian and German army controlled Bar. Fighting against the occupiers (conquerors) partisan army liberated Bar in November 1944. Since then and until 1991 Bar was a part of the Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia.

In the postwar period, especially during the 60`s of the XX century Bar developed in a famous harbor center of Montenegro and ex Yugoslavia. Also, beside portal and naval transportation, Bar is today famous for the development of tourism, economy and sport.

Legend

Beside the sea ridge, situated at the very coast, stretching from what used to be the town of Pristan on the shore from Bar to Kufin, at the entrance to Pastrovici, once upon a time the galleys used to dock. Their owners, used to disembark there in order to trade goods and buy various victuals form Zeta and Crmnica. The natives from Bar and the surrounding area, labourers, well-known and ordinary people were getting used to that settled rhythm of life, which was dictated by the merchants. It continued to be like that until the time when the pirates from Ulcinj began to pillage the coast of Bar. The pirates from Ulcinj were notorious for their very bad misdeeds, pesterings and plundering both from the rich and the poor. The stories about pirates and their wrongdoings began to be spread, so ordinary people feared and panicked more and more at the very thought of the pirates` leaders. The pirates were so mighty and powerful so that no one could withstand them. They showed their defiance to the world and people as they were docking to the shores in their galleys crammed with various stolen objects and precious things which they robbed by intercepting and plundering ships that belonged to   merchants and nobility. Their treasure was getting greater with every day. A few pirates came to an idea that they should find a secret place at which their treasure would be safe, and where they could hide in case of danger. One day a pirate recalled that there was a mountain Sozina, where the galleys used to dock, not far away from   the sea shore, so they decided that it would be an ideal place for hiding. Short after, the pirates began to make caves and hiding places inside the mountain Sozina, and to conceal stolen treasure, weapons and slaves.

Among the slaves, once, there was a girl named Milja, who was unusually beautiful and attractive. The chiefs of pirates assigned Iljka to be her guard. Iljko was also young and handsome, and soon they fell in love with each other. Although they didn`t hide their love, Iljko and Milja couldn`t stay together for long. One day the other pirates began to talk about the love of the two young ones, and soon the pirate captain Djerlezi heared about that. Out of jealousy, he ordered Iljko to go away   and participate in some great retaliation which pirates were planing on the sea. Iljko went away, and Milja still stayed as a slave in the darkness of the cave.

Milja waited for a long time for her loved one to come back. She expected him to return every day, and she kept peering through a small hole in the cave, watching the grey sea, and longing for Iljko to come back. But time irrevocably passed away, and Iljko didn`t return. Finally Milja lost every hope of seeing him again. Being sorrow as she was, she decided to take her life away.

The next morning Milja rushed out of the cave and jumped into the sea from a very high cliff. Soon, Iljko did eventually return. When he heard how Milja, faithfully awaiting him, put an end to her life, he took a large amount of powder, put it into one part of the cave, and lit it. The powder made a big explosion.

As a consequence of that explosion, the hill in which the cave was situated, broke into two. The hill actually, according to the legend, cracked, and as the old people from Bar would say - tumbled into the sea and that is how SUTOMORE got its name ( «suturisati»-tumble, «more»-sea ).

That place today is touristucally most famous weekend resort place beside Bar, especially during summer. The well-known Sutromore beach is situated there.

Culture

Many important personalities who with their actions and appearances made an indelible trace in a long-range creation of that ancient town are mentioned in the history and the culture of Bar. Among the most significant individuals in the earliest period or in the period of the beginnings of town Bar, a historically very important personality Prince Vladimir is mentioned. According to some historical data, he was the first nominally independent ruler of the Principality of Duklja- the first Montenegrin state, and the time of his reign unfortunately is not precisely determined, only the period between 980 – 1016 is being mentioned. The personality of Prince Vladimir, today is connected mostly with the famous piece – “ The Life of St. Vladimir (of Duklja)”, in which among other things is cited the Legend of Vladimir and Kosara, written in Cyrillic in folk language.

In that legend among other things, it is said that love between Vladimir and Kosara- the daughter of the Macedonian King Samuilo, was unusual. Namely, during the Samuilo`s attack on the area known as Precista Krajinska, where the capital of the state Duklja was placed, Prince Vladimir former ruler, in order to save his people he voluntarily surrendered himself to Samuilo. Vladimir was immediately imprisoned, but not long after Samuilo`s daughter Kosara falls in love with Vladimir, so the Prince of Duklja is being released. Vladimir and Kosara stay in marriage until the year 1014, when after Samuilo`s death, the Macedonian throne falls into hands of Jovan Vladislav. Considering the fact that Prince Vladimir independently ruled Duklja, he immediately fell in disfavor of the new Macedonian emperor Vladislav, who tricked him into death in the year of 1016. Still, the appearance of Prince Vladimir, later a saint, is interesting also because of the fact that the cult of St. Vladimir of Duklja is cherished even today, so in the June procession that is organized up to the mountain Rumija, on which according to the tradition there used to be the church of St. Vladimir, believers of all three confessions participate: Orthodox, Catholics ad Muslims. On that day on the top of the mountain a wooden cross is being carried, which according to a legend Prince Vladimir had on him during the execution. Vladimir`s cross is being preserved as the greatest relic in Androvic brotherhood in the Old Bar.

For the data about Prince and St. Vladimir of Duklja, merit goes to Byzantium historian Jovan Sikilica, who at one time wrote that the “blessed Prince Vladimir of Duklja, was just, peace-loving man, full of virtues” so that the cult of St. Vladimir beside in Duklja was respected in Dalmatia, Albania, Macedonia and Bulgaria.

Still, the most significant piece about Prince Vladimir, was written by the father of Montenegrin history and literature – priest Dukljanin (a Benedictine whose name is not known precisely), in the piece “The Chronicle of the Priest Dukljanin”, which most probably appeared in the year of 1183.

The next historically very important person is Vladimir`s nephew Stefan Vizantijac, who ruled Duklja from 1018 to 1043 as a Byzantium vassal, then the Montenegrin King Mihailo Vojislavljevic, who according to some assumptions was crowned in 1077 year and ruled until 1081 year. Still, the most significant spiritual names, in the history and the culture of Bar, are related to Bar bishopric, which was established in 1089 year. Bishopric lasted for 9 centuries, and on the head of it were 60 archbishops. Those were mostly educated people, the witnesses of events and time. The most famous among them, was the so-called Grgur Grizogono, or Priest Dukljanin, the author of Bar genealogy.

In the history and the culture of Bar, some other significant names are remembered, like King Bodin (1081 – 1101). He was the ruler of Duklja and later Zeta. During his reign, Duklja occupied an immense area, and it had sovereignty over Raska, Bosna, Travunija and Zahumlje and over parts of Macedonia, Croatia and Northern Albania.

Still, in the cultural life of Bar of the greatest importance were the grand notables of Bar bishopric. Some of them wrote epitaphs for tombstones. Bar epitaphs are one of the oldest literary works found in the area of Bar. Those are the verses in Latin language carved into stone, below which were buried grand notables from Bar bishopric: episcope Jovan from the time of Prince Vladimir and archbishops Djordje, Petar and Sergije who lived in period from XI till XIV century.

The above-mentioned bishop and archbishops are buried in the interior of the cathedral church of St. Djordje, which was placed in the outstanding place in Bar, in Londza.

In 1571 the Turks occupied Bar and turned the church of St. Djordje into a mosque.

Later, during some annex, the tombstones were taken out of the floor and built into the façade.

The French consul in Skadar, Vinsent Ekar, who often went through Bar, in his book “The History of Upper Albania”, published in 1858, was the first to mention Bar epitaphs, but he didn't quote them. At that time the archbishop was a Bavarian Karl Poten.

The famous poet was Filip Gijo (1485 – 1624). His works unfortunately were not preserved. Also, very famous was Bar Archbishop Marin Bici. In period between 1608 till 1624 he sent a detailed report to Holy See about his travels along the coast of Montenegro, Albania and Old Serbia. Later that report served as a very important document, which testified of the situation in that area at that time.

Very important places in the history of the Bar bishopric had the members of Zmajevic family from Perast (near Kotor). The most fruitful Zmajevic was bishop Andrija Zmajevic, born in 1624, otherwise an excellent writer in folk language. Zmajevic was famous for his work which he regularly recorded, that is named “Church Chronicle”, but also for his manuscripts: Ode to Dubrovnik “To Slavic Dubrava”, a humorous poem “To Tripo Skuri”…

In the middle century in the area of Bar several distinguished literates, painters, and diplomats lived. Along with the well-known literate Antun Prokulijano, distinguished names of literary life of Bar were also the lawyers of a famous Italian family Basali. Among them, the first who in the beginning of XVI century settled in Bar from the Italian province Trevizo was a Venecian employee Kamilo Besali. He was famous for his writing of epistles. He is the author of many poems composed in an elegant style, which were later published by an editor Bartolomeo Gottifredi in his collection “Raccolta di Espitole Italiane” , published in Venice in 1572.

Also, a very famous and prominent was the lawyer Viktor Besali, born in Bar, a humanistic writer and a chancellor of Dubrovnik. He lived and worked at the end of XVI and the beginning of the XVII century. In the historical documents, the name of Viktor Besali is mentioned during diplomatic missions, in the Dubrovnik Republic in 1596 – at the Austrian archduke Ferdinand as well as in 1600, at pope Clement VIII. Besali wrote and published Latin and Illyrian verses, which among other things are a testimony of friendly relations of Besali and Dubrovian medieval writers, literates and humanists, especially with the famous Ivan Gundulic. His verses were mostly published in Venice and Dubrovnik in:   1579, 1599, and in 1621 year.

In Bar and the surrounding area there were some less famous painters. Even though the record from archive do not give sufficient information about life and work of those artists, it is still known that in XV century, in Bar lived and worked the goldsmith Matej (1441), as well as the painter Stjepan (1477). Along with theirs, in documents, beside the year of 1485 is mentioned the name of Marin Orso from Bar, otherwise a Venetian citizen. The precise records about archive documents, save the will dated in 1551, of Bar painter Dominik Nikolo, the author of the painting of pious motive, that used to be kept in the convent of St. Alvisa, do not exist.

When we are talking about the historical and cultural personalities of Bar, then the preserved written tracks direct us again to Bar bishopric. A very important individual of Bar archbishopric was Doctor Nikola Dobrecic, who wrote poems in Serbian, Latin, French, and Italian language. He was born in 1872 in Bartula near Old Bar. As a young man he becomes a catholic priest, so in the year of 1890 he is being sent to Rome, where with a colleague Marko Astic he graduated theology and philosophy, and he becomes the first doctor of two religious sciences. Later he served in Cetinje, as a priest of the Catholic Church, as a high school professor and the first stenographer in Montenegrin parliament. He publishes a well-know essay “Victor Hugo as a National and International Poet”. On returning to his hometown Bar, 1918, Dobrecic aids the development of culture, education and health care. In the Catholic Church he establishes a Maiden institute, in which nuns were trained. At the beginning of the XX century Dobrecic starts an action for building of a new archbishopric, whose building began in 1923. The humanity of Doctor Niko Dobrecic, was especially outstanding during the World War II, when he was helping numerous refugees and people in trouble.

Doctor Nikola Dobrecic died at the end of 1955 year in Zagreb, where he was hit by a trolley car and it broke his leg in hip. He was buried in his endowment in the church of St. Nikola in Bar.

Some very famous and appreciated creators in the area of literature, acting, music, politics, etc live in Bar in recent years. Among them we should be pointed out a film and TV creator, a founder of Bar International TV festival Pero Radovanovic then bishop of Bar Zef Gasija, a young and a very promising historian and writer Ivan Jovovic, in whose works the past and the history of Bar is mostly mentioned. In Bar also lives and works children's author Rajko Jolicic, then a young painter Naod Zoric, the actor Dragisa Simonovic, pop musicians Mico Vujovic and Goran Pejovic.

Nature

Bar is situated in the South of Montenegro. The area over which municipality of Bar is spread is situated between the Adriatic Sea and Skadar. The territory of Bar is 506 km 2 , and along with the part that encompasses water surface of the Skadar Lake (on the Bar side), the area sums up to 633km 2 . The central part of the Bar area represents the mountain massif of Rumija (the highest peak 1595 m) along with Sozina (971 m), Sutorman (1185) and Lisinja (1352 m), that has a dinaric direction of expanding and makes a natural border between the Adriatic Sea and the Skadar Lake.

As Bar is only 180 m by airline from the Strait of Otranto, it is connected by waterway to Middle and East Mediterranean, and ports of all continents, so such a link enables shorter and direct connections with all the shores of the Mediterranean Sea.

The climate of Bar is very characteristic. Beside the fact that it is one of the sunniest places of the South Europe, with approximately 270 sun hours per year, the climate has long and warm summers, and mild winters.

The average yearly temperature is 16 ○ C. In July the approximate air temperature is 23 ○ C, and in January 10 ○ C.

The summers in Bar are long and dry, and because of the heat influences of the Adriatic Sea the winters are mild and rainy. On the average, during the winter in Bar there are 38 rainy days in a year.

Average high winter temperature, (around 10 ○ C) shows that in Bar there are very few real winter days. Also, there are very few days in Bar when the temperature goes below 0 ○ C, so it is thought that actually in Bar there is no real winter. Real rarities are the winter days accompanied with snow and frost. All the above-mentioned characteristics recommend Bar to tourists as an ideal place not just for the summer but also for a winter sojourn and vacation.

Considering the fact that the municipality of Bar, concerning the relief, is divided in three regions: Adriatic, lake and mountain region, in some parts of the Bar municipality we can differ three types of climate. In the Adriatic zone the climate is mild – Mediterranean, especially distinct in Bar field. The characteristics of the mountain-Mediterranean climate are especially customary in the mountain wreaths, especially above mountains Sutorman, Rumija and Lisanj. In the zone of the Skadar Lake we have the Adriatic climate, with strong influences of the continental climate, and significant oscillations in temperature.

Municipality of Bar encompasses some parts around places of Virpazar, Crmnica, and Skadar Lake, so the climate in those areas is significantly different from the climate in Bar. When the Southwestern circulation (stream) is turns out, then the area of Bar is exposed to wet air.

Characteristic Adriatic winds blow in Bar and the surroundings: the cold wind –the tempest, the wet wind – the south wind or the sirocco, as well as the west wind, the north wind or the mistral, the storm wind, the day wind and the night wind.

The most frequent and the wind of the greatest intensity is the tempest. It blows mostly in the winter form high mountains towards the sea and it brings coldness. The tempest, which blows on the sea, can be of strength of a storm, so it usually makes low and short waves up to 2.5 meters.

South wind or sirocco blows in the South or Southeast part of the Adriatic region, from the sea towards the land. Depending whether it blows with medium or maximal speed, the strength of the south wind can be between 3 and 8 Beau forts. During the blowing of the south wind the sea is ruffled, and the waves reach the height up to six meters.

When the weather is clear and warm, and that is usually at the end of spring and during the summer, in Bar blows the so-called cool wind the breeze or mistral. That wind most often blows during the day. Mistral is considered to be the most important summer wind, because it pleasantly cools the heat during the hot summer days. The mistral blows from the sea and mostly it just stirs the sea surface.

The west wind is wet and pretty frequent wind which blows in Bar most frequently in the spring. In Bar and the surroundings, often also blows levant, a warm southeast wind, which makes the air wet, while the wind named lebic, blows from south-west. The storm wind blows over night, from the land towards the sea, from north-east and east, while during the unequal warming and cooling of Bar bay, the summer day and night wind shift.

In Bar and the surroundings often blows a very strong stormy wind better known as nevera. It blows from the sea, and it is characterized by short duration and frequent change of blowing direction.

Flora and fauna of Bar are also very characteristic. Beside the diversity and thickness of the floral cover, the geographical location and the structure of the soil enabled that in Bar different floral cultures and especially the subtropic ones can be grown and developed. Beside meadows, fields, vineyards and orchards, the green zone of Bar abounds in deciduous and coniferous forests, pastures, under bush and marquise. Especially in the mountains and forests around Bar grow: beech, fir, juniper bush, black and white pine, oak, hornbeam, cerris, chestnut, European ash... Especially is interesting the floral kind of a plant of yellow color, which grows on a thin dark green stick, better known as zuka. Most frequently it grows like a wild bush and from it people from old Bar used to make nets and ropes. Also, out of the fibers of zuka old Bar women wove suits and white folk costumes. Save the diversity and thickness of the floral cover, the geographical location and the structure of the soil enabled that in Bar different floral cultures and especially the sub tropic ones can be grown and developed.

The most diffused plant is olive, the native fruit kind. There is a very little number of the households in Bar that in their own yards don't have at least one olive tree.

Beside the fact that from the olive tree a famous oil better known as “The Bar gold“, which is one of the several export articles of the Montenegrin trade mark “Made in Montenegro“, is being extracted, olive oil is a very important ingredient of many traditional meals, especially those that are made of fish. In Bar and the surroundings several kinds of olive trees grow, and the most frequent are black and yellow olive tree, more famous as “crnjaka“ and “zutica“. Also, Bar households are engaged in growing grape wine, and rather often certain heads of the households grow citrus fruits, oranges, lemon, kiwi, tangerines (mandarins)   on their plantations but also other sub tropic kinds that are very numerous in the area of Bar like wild and cultivated pomegranate, figs...

A special segment of flora represents the aromatic herbs, and the citizens of certain places around Bar are engage in collecting and refining of the herb wormwood, from which beside the medicinal tea that is mostly used with the illnesses of throat and cold, is also made honey of great quality.

The coastal area of Bar is also rich with exotic herbal kinds like: palm trees, cactuses, eucalyptus, chestnut, as well as decorative plants like: agaves, mimosas, oleanders but also rosemary and laurel, that are used as very important spices, especially in preparing fish, soup and various thick soups.

In Bar and in its surrounding you can find very different animal species. The largest part of animals inhabits the mountains around Bar like: Rumija, Sozina, Sutorman and Lisanj. The special fauna value represents the wild dog or jackal, that most frequently resides in mountains around Bar. From beasts in Bar we have: foxes, wolves, wild boars, rabbits and pine marten.

Particularly interesting by its importance, when it is spoken of animals, is the region of the Skadar Lake, in whose fauna 264 kinds of birds are registered. Today the Skadar Lake is the biggest settlement of pelicans in Europe. There 12 kinds of snipes, 3 kinds of grebes and 160 more of other kind of birds are being hunted. Among the bird inhabitants in the region of the Skadar Lake we have: cormorants, gulls, different kinds of ducks, gooses, and pheasant. Often storks, herons (white, yellow and grey), grebes and other kinds of birds, which are rare in the world, are often found here. On the Skadar Lake fishing is very frequent. In the water of the lake carps and eels are most frequently caught. Illegal hunting lasted for years, and the irregular haunt of the fish contributed, that in lake as well as in Bar aquatorium, that the young fish is pretty destroyed. In the sea fauna, the most frequent kinds are: dentex, sapa (dentex dentex lat.), bleak (diplodus sargus lat.), arbun (pagellus erythrinus lat), goph (seriola dumerili lat), mackerel (sarda sarda lat) and from the smaller fishes there are: BUKVA (boops boops lat.), surmullet (mullus barbutus lat.) and UKLJAT (oblada melanura lat).

Cephalopods are mostly hunted in the winter period especially: squids, European cuttlefish, octopus but also shells and crabs. In sufficient amount in Bar aquatorium there are still mussels, while rarely there are oysters, and finger like shells.

Top 5

Top 5 Places in Bar

The Old Bar

To stay in Bar, and not visit its old part, that is, the Old Bar, it is the same, people from Bar say, as if you haven't been in that town at all. The Old Bar, which is 4 kilometers away from the center of the New Bar, is situated on a very steep cliff in the base of the mountain Rumija. The town has been successively built for several centuries. Primarily the area that the Old Bar encompassed was much closer to the shore, but because of the frequent pirate attacks, population had to move to interior, so today the Old Bar is almost 5 kilometers away from the sea. Bar is constituted of the fortified city lake, encompassed by the walls from the XI and XII century, which were renewed in the XIV and XV century. During the visit of that part of Bar, you'll see an old city gate from the XI century. Beside the gate, there is a Citadela, which had exclusively defensive character. As a part of the Old Bar is annexed it the Venetian era, during the XV century and in the first half of the XVI century, a great number of monuments authentically testifies of that time. There are two still very well preserved churches: the church of St. Katarina from the XVI century and the church of St. Veneranda from the Xv century. In the old part of the town there is a Turkish bathroom – a steam bath from the XVII century, a powder magazine, as well as some other interesting buildings, like the remains of the church St. Nikola, which in the year 1288 was built by the wife of the Serbian emperor Uros, better known as Jelena Anzujska or Jelena Kurtnejska. Below the Old town there are the remains of aquaduct from the XVI and XVII century, through which the water was brought to town.

The Old Bar, in which today no one lives, used to be full of inhabitants who were engaged in various kinds of trading, selling olive oil, salt, craftworks…

In the Old Bar there is also a place Podgrad (Undertown), which dates from the middle century, but in which people live even today. In the community there are several old inns, shops, craft shops, s well as meat market. In Podograd two mosques and a catholic church of St. Marija are situated.

Especially during the last few years, the society of friends of the Old Bar, and the descendants of the families that used to live in it, have set in motion an action for revival of the Old Bar, as an ancient architectonic compound and the oldest settlement on the territory of that town. From summer to summer Old Bar has become very interesting to architects, archeologists, cultural and public workers, who reveal interesting ideas and create various projects for the revitalization and preserving Old Bar from oblivion. That is the way to introduce younger people from Bar but also numerous tourists with all that Old Bar used to signify.

If you wish to meet the surroundings of the Old Bar, then we recommend that you easily take a stroll to a place called Mirovica, where the famous trunk of an over 2.000 years old Bar olive tree is located.

King Nikola's Castle

Today is more of a museum building which testifies that the Montenegrin state under the reign of King Nikola I Petrovic, attached great importance on contemporary social, cultural but also architectonical trend of the XIX century and the first few decades of the XX century. “The castle on Topolica” as, because of where it is located, King Nikola`s castle else is called, was built by Prince Petar Karadjordjevic, Nikola`s brother-in-law, in order to buy it from him in the in 1885. The building has also a small castle, chapels, sentry boxes, and winter gardens. At the beginning of the year 1919, next to the castle spacious ball saloon was added onto. The King's castle makes the Mediterranean park, which is rich with marvelous vegetation extraordinary. Today, the complex of the castle is used for the cultural necessities of Bar. The King Nikola`s castle also represents a Homeland museum, and in the saloons of the castle special literary evenings, musical concerts, festivals, happenings, art exhibitions are taking place…

  As the castle is situated next to the seashore, it used to have a wooden floodgate, which was used for docking in of the ships, because King Nikola owned 10 yachts. It is interesting to point out, that the famous yacht “Sibil” King Nikola bought from the novel writer Gil VERNE, and his last Yacht “Rumija, was sank by Austrian – Hungarian navy in 1915, on the site of the today's aquatorium . Nearby there is a flower house, of the non-corrosive construction, which was a gift of the Italian King Emanuel, which today stands as the representative resort compound better known as Prince`s garden”.

Virpazar

If you wish to escape from the summer heat and the throng which prevails both on the beaches and in the whole town, we recommend that you set yourself from Bar through the tunnel Sozina, with your own car or tourist taxi or van transport and go to a place called Virpazar. It is a picturesque place, and in the past it was famous for the biggest Montenegrin market. Today Virpazar is also a famous vacation area, and in the past it was a transitory station for the cruise over Skadar Lake. Many famous and less famous people, who came to Virpazar, kept coming back to it, because it is a beautiful place, which simply attracts people in warm summer days as well as in early autumn and spring. Also in the cold winter days, grey from the rain or first snow, Virpazar look attractive. Family houses from which one can see the smoke coming out of the chimney, which keeps home warm during the winter, numerous canoes, barges and bigger taxi boats, which usually transport tourists who wish to see the beauties of Skadar Lake, stand tied to the shore, and only some hard working and persistent inhabitant of Virpazar, is trying to set out to the lake water in hope that he'll find in his net numerous: carps, bleaks or some eel. Still, all the magic of Virpazar or Vir, how that place was named in the past, you'll experience best during the summer. Whether you're staying in the hotel “July 13” or if you're comfortably accommodated in the famous motel “Pelikan” (“Pelican”), you'll quickly leave your hotel room, because the call of the Skadar Lake and its numerous historical monuments will immediately draw you to a cruise. When you embark on one of the tourist taxies below the formerly built bridge, the captain and at the same time the tour guide, while skillfully navigating the vessel, will try to explain you, in best possible way, the past of Virpazar and Skadar Lake, and very often in several foreign languages. He'll introduce you with some details like: with the fact that Skadar Lake is the largest lake on the Balkans, and second largest in Europe. You'll find out that at the lake there are 200 various bird species. Because of that fact, in the recent years, especially among tourists bird watching is very developed or watching of the birds – with binoculars or special gear intended for tracking their flying direction. Skadar Lake today is the biggest settlement of pelicans in Europe. . There 12 kinds of snipes, 3 kinds of ducks and 160 more of other kind of birds. Among the bird inhabitants in the region of the Skadar Lake we have: cormorants, gulls, different kinds of ducks, gooses, and pheasant. Often you can see storks, herons (white, yellow and gray), grebes and other kinds of birds, which are rare in world, are often found here. On the Skadar Lake fishing is very frequent. The fishes most frequently caught are carps and eels.

Driving over the lake, you can meet beautiful flora. If you express a wish, captain will slow down for a moment, so that you can easily pick a water lily or a beautiful white lotus flower which can be found all over the lake.

Beside the decorative stalks of the blossomed reed, the memory of the staying in ecological areas of the Skadar Lake will also be a souvenir like kasoranja (a black, irregularly shaped bristled fruit), that is to say, sea walnut. Usual tourist tour over the lake, understands stopping by the island Grmozur – that used to be a prison, then a visit to churches whose endowers where old Montenegrin rulers Balsici, a visit to a beach named Murici where you can refresh yourself in the lake water, take a rest under the hundred years old trees or repose with a marvelous lake lunch (usually thick fish soup and roasted carp)!

On your way back to Virpazar, captain will suggest swimming in the water where the lake is warmest, he'll also suggest observation of rare kinds of birds, sightseeing of old churches… and when satisfied with what you've seen you come back to Virpazar, we recommend that you inevitably visit motel “Pelikan” because, beside the extraordinary lake specialties like: thick fish soup, smoked or roasted fish, homemade bread…, the kind hosts will serve you with something else. The interior of the restaurant, which is in the motel, testifies about the fisherman life of this region. Over the walls various hats, aromatic and healing herbs, old items are hanged… If you notice that motel “Pelikan” is an unusually interesting place and you publicly say that, the hosts will take you to a hidden place called Odzaklija (Chimney house), an old house that is situated in the attic of the hotel. About that place we'll reveal only that much that beside the past of the Montenegro, tools, weapons, and folk costumes there are for e.g. kept many old items, some even several centuries old. The rest of the story we wish that you find out and experience by yourself. And of course to enjoy!

Ratac

This place in Bar and the surroundings is better known as cape Ratac. It is situated several kilometers away from Bar on the highway Bar – Sutomore. Today this place is known as a sanctuary (there is a benediction convent dated from IX century, the convent of mother of God of Ratac) but because of the beautiful verdure, Ratac is considered to be a favorite tourist site for camping or some other type of recreation. Recently Ratac has become more and more interesting to nudists, because of the nude beach which is located on the south side of the cape, but also because of the unusually bluish color of the sea in that area of the Bar shore. Numerous tourists visit Ratac, because of the very clean seawater, as well as because of the ecologically natural environment. According to the words of many visitors, especially campers, Ratac is a God given place, because already for several years on a part of the beach there is a real nature park. If you do not wish to sunbathe and swim on the nude beach, 300 meters away from the cape Ratac there is the most beautiful Bar beach, which because of the unusual color of the sand is called Crvena plaza(The Red beach). Even though the beach is not too big, from year to year, it becomes more and more favorite at people from Bar and their guests. One of the reasons of the arrival of the increasing number of foreign and domestic tourists on the Red beach is an extremely clear and transparent seawater and thick verdure, which surrounds it.

On the other hand, Ratac has a significantly great religious meaning. In the area around the ruined convent of mother of God of Ratac, you can almost every day see a lighted candle. Religious people come to that space, with wishes and requests to the mother of God for recuperation, success, or forgiveness of the committed sins. It is often that religious people write their wishes on a piece of paper and leave them in the cracks of the monastery stonewalls.

Sutomore

A place, which is only few kilometers away from Bar, thus it, is considered its suburbs. Sutomore is an extremely interesting and attractive place during the summer, so numerous tourists instead staying in Bar, accommodate themselves in the hotels along the Riviera in Sutomore, or in some of the private houses or villas. On the very brim of the sea in Sutomore there is a long sandy beach, an unusual sight stretches out toward the open sea. If you wish to just go through Sutomore then the best part f your summer vacation you'll with no doubt spend on the Sutomore beach enjoying sunbathing, swimming or relaxing with the clod fruit drinks on some of the numerous terraces of the restaurants. However, if you wish to go towards places Zagradje or beach Maljek you'll find the space for camping. Straighten your thing from the bag and camp as much as you wish.

If Sutomore attracts you so much, that you're planning to stay a little bit longer, beside in the hotel, you can find an adequate and not so expensive accommodation in private houses or apartment villas. Also, if you inform yourself with the amiable locale people, from Sutomore you can go to coast or mountain part of the community Brca. In the foothill of that community there are nicely arranged private houses or apartment buildings, which provide services of accommodation and of boarding house. The mountain part is prevailed by summerhouses, but above them there is a very old community of an interesting architecture, characteristic only for that part of the Bar area. The community Brca as well as entire Sutomore you'll experience as interesting places for rest, which beside attractive beaches and the surrounding offer rich resort and amusement offer.

 

Find more on : www.visit-montenegro.com , www.photo-montenegro.com

Ulcinj

This town is in the far south of the Montenegrin coast. With its natural charms, Ulcinj is perfect for tourism. The longest sandy beach on the Adriatic (the Big Beach is 13 km long) – Ada Bojana, the splendid river island with more magnificent sandy beaches, the unique cove Valdanos with numerous old olive trees in the background, the reconstructed old town within Ulcinj (rich in interesting restaurants, cafs, galleries and hotels) and many other interesting sites make Ulcinj a unique place, attractive for many tourists.

Ulcinj is a town that you definitely have to see.

Old Town Ulcinj

Ulcinj`s Old town is a lot like many other medieval towns on the Montenegrin Coast. It is encircled by big stonewalls and fortresses, which for centuries have been the keepers of the Ulcin`s: history, culture, and tradition. For the Old town people from Ulicnj say that it is a fortress of a unique beauty. Bulwarks, which surround it, come out directly from the sea and their surface is 3 ha. They are composed of citadel – a part which is still called upper town an a fortress of a military character, which is located on a highest stone plateau, and city community which encircles the south area which is gird by the defensive walls. It is considered that the real builders of the Old town in Ulcinj were Greeks from Epir, who built the town at the end of the V and at the beginning of the IV century B.C. That that period can be considered as the time for which the genesis of the town can be tied with, testifies a record on the pedestal for the icon of a goddess Ara on which it is written: “The union of the stonemasons (erects) to Artemida Elafavoli (a goddess of hunt)”. That leads us to a fact that the “Cyclops” walls, as they are still called, the bulwarks of Ulcinj, were erected by the Greek masons. The town, which was made by the Greeks, was ruined in the earthquake in the V century, so for the now – day look of the Old town Ulcinj, the credit mostly goes to Romans, who built a new town in the VI century. With the Old town many stories are connected. Up to the year 19000 in Ulcinj 100 black people lived. For the arrivals of the first men of black complexion the most important is the period when Ulcinj, that is, at that time Port Valdanos was a pirate asylum. Because of the trading of slaves from the countries of the Mediterranean, the main square in Ulcinj even today carries a name Slave Square. Also, even today you can hear a story that the famous Spanish writer Miguel de Servantes was one of the imprisoned pirate captives and slaves in Ulcinj. In Ulcinj Servantes has spent 5 years. Later, on his returning to his homeland, Servantes writes his famous work named “Don Quixote”. It is supposed that the two female characters that are mentioned in that work are precisely inspired by the Servantes` imprisonment in Ulcinj.

History

According to historical data Ulcinj is fro sure one of the oldest towns on the Adriatic coast. It is thought that Ulcinj is more that 2.000 years old. In this area for centuries the cultures of Orient and the West collided, which by the richness of the historical inheritance, can be felt in every step. As the tracks of the first settlements in Ulcinj appear even before V century B.C. it is considered that Ulcinj was founded by Illyrians, the people of the Indo-European origin. At the time of the free Illyrian state, Ulcinj experiences its greatest bloom. The original name of Ulcinj was Kolhinijum, and it got such name by Kolhidians (a tribe of Greek origin) for which is thought that they are the founders of the old Ulcinj Lake. Before the year 162 B.C. Ulcinj is ruled over by an Illyrian tribe Olcinijantas, which in the II century B.C., was conquered by the Romans, so the ancient Colchinijum becomes Olcinijum.

During the time of the Roman Empire Ulcinj receives a status of a town with special privileges (Opida civijum romanorum), in order to later become a town with temporarily independent status a Municipium.

After the division of the Roman Empire Ulcinj belonged to province Prevalis, which was a part of the East Empire, and the inhabitants becomes Christian. Because of an extraordinary geographical location, mild climate and relief, Ulcinj has been for centuries a target for the conquerors. That Montenegrin town at the utmost south was frequently ruined during the wars. Byzantium emperor Justinijan, has renewed and rebuilt Ulcinj, while Nemanjici, Balsici, Venetians and Turks have widened the town with new buildings. In the year 1183 Ulcinj was taken over by the Great Serbian rector Stefan Nemanja, and in that period Ulcinj becomes one of the most significant coastal towns. As well as in the era of the Duklja rulers (since the IX century and on), Ulcinj is a distinguished coastal town with mixed Slav, Albanian and Roman citizens. Ulcinj was not a permanent capital of the rulers and co-rulers of Zeta and the Coast, but the potentates of Zeta and the Coast had their residences in that town. Especially in the period of the reign of Duklja and the state of Nemanjic, Ulcinj gains a medieval character. At that time Ulcinj was an important trading and naval center with the autonomy of the town inside the Raska state.

The political significance of Ulcinj was very distinct in the era of Balsici, especially in the era of Djuradj Stratimirovic Balsic (1385 1403). In a dash at the end of the XIII century even the Mongolians, who performed an unsuccessful siege of the town, attacked Ulcinj. After the failure Mongolians have ruined the town Svac (close to Ulcinj today a dead town), and murdered all of its citizens. After the fall of the state of Zeta in 1405, Ulcinj is taken over by the Venetians and they rule for 150 years. Ulcinj was under Turk reign until 1571, when it definitely falls into hands of a heavy Turkish hand. Compared to the adjacent towns on the Coast, Ulcinj has fairly late fell into the reign of Otoman control, 90 years after the fall of Herceg Novi (1482 1483) As during the reign of Venetian Republic Ulcinj had an evidential fortification, strategic, naval and economic and political significance, the Turkish conquerors continued to develop strategic goals. Still, during the era of the Turkish reign over the town, Ulcinj gains a completely Oriental look. Mosques, Turkish baths, drinking fountains, watch towers, inns and burial chambers are being built. Everything in towns is adjusting to the new masters. Ulcinj was also famous as a place of a long and rich naval and merchant tradition. In this town sailing reached its top rise in XVII, XVIII, and during the XIX century. The naval trade of people from Ulcinj with their own boats took place in bigger harbors and trading centers of the Adriatic coast, Levant and the Mediterranean. During the era of Turkish reign (1571 1880) Ulcinj with its trading fleet has become the main pillar of Otoman Empire on the Mediterranean. Brave and skilful mariners from Ulcinj have poorly acknowledged the state reign of the Turks. Until the proclamation of Mehmed Busatlija for the Grand Vizier of Skadar, Ulcinj was like a small republic. It is written that the Grand Vizier of Skadar in deceit, to restrain the piracy, which at that time grew more and more, in port Valdanos sank liners form Ulcinj, after which people from Ulcinj officially recognize the Turkish reign.

During the era of the Montenegrin reign (1880 1918) in Ulcinj, 107 sailing boast were registered. People from Ulcinj were skilful mariners and good ship wrighters. In the XVII century the fleet of Ulcinj had 500 two master ships, which sailed across the Mediterranean Sea. Many wars have imperiled the development of the Ulcinj fleet. In the XIV century Ulcinj was known by 400 pirates from Malta, Tunis, and Algeria who have inhabited Ulcinj after the Kanidian war (1669), so Ulcinj has turned into a dangerous pirate nest, which remained a characteristic of the town during the XVII and XVIII century as well. After almost 300 years, at the beginning of the 1878 Ulcinj is freed from the Turks, and after the decision in Berlin congress on the November 10 1880, Ulcinj is annexed to the Principality of Montenegro. The First World War Ulcinj waited as an integral town of the former Montenegrin Principality. Even though the King and the Prince of the Montenegro, Nikola I Petrovic Njegos, at the beginning of the XX century moved one part of the Christian citizenship, in Ulcinj Islamic citizenship, that was loyal to the Principality of Montenegro, still prevailed. As in many other towns of the Montenegrin Coast in Ulcinj too the vortex of the Second World War was felt.

In the year 1941 German and Italian troupes conquered the entire Montenegro, and stayed in it until the crash of Nazism at the end of 1944, when partisan troupes liberated the utmost south town on the Montenegrin Coast Ulcinj. Beside its rich cultural and historical heritage this ancient town is famous for its multiethnic and multinational structure of the citizens who through history was united and offered resistance to the conqueror, especially during the Second World War. On those, for Ulcinj very important historical days, remind many commemorative plaques and busts all over town. After the Second World War the renewal of all towns on the Montenegrin Coast as well as Ulcinj began. The great tourist potential which Ulcinj with the surroundings has even today, was and remained a great chance for a successful development of the most important economic branch in Montenegro tourism.. Today, Ulcinj is a famous multiethnic and tourist town in the South of Montenegro, which from year to year marks greater and greater number of domestic and foreign tourists.

Legend

As many other states, places or towns are recognizable for its historical events, famous individuals, fairy tales or stories, Ulcinj and people from Ulcinj are famous for various and especially pirate ones.

Through the history, Ulcinj has been for many centuries a pirate nest. The town starting from the XIV century has began to be inhabited by the pirates from Malta, Tunis, and Algeria. The coastal part, from the present Ulcinj all the way to Kotor, was the pirate nest. The pirates, especially during the XVII and XVIII century, have represented fear on the sea. Pirate gangs have become so powerful that they attacked various trading ships that sailed under various ensigns; they have robbed them and quickly sailed in their bulwarks, which they made along the entire Ulcinj Coast. The greatest damage of the dangerous attacks of pirate commanders among whom the most famous were brothers Karamindzoja, Lika Ceni, Ali hodza and others, suffered the Venetian fleet. Beside the invasions and robberies on trading ships, pirates from Ulcinj were famous by the trading of black slaves. Because of that fact a great number of inhabitants in Ulcinj were black people from different African countries. Among old people from Ulcinj even today it is mentioned how until 1878 in Ulcinj 100 black people lived, as well as the fact that among the slaves in the dungeons a famous writer Servantes dwelled, by whom one of the Ulcinj squares is named Slave square. Still, the most famous and the most gladly retold story among people from Ulcinj even today is the legend of famous pirate Liko Cena.

Liko Cena a man from Ulcinj was the most famous pirate chief. Everyday with his pirate army he attacked different trading ships, and sometimes even the entire fleets. One time Liko Cena with his company sank a ship on which there were pilgrims who traveled to a pilgrimage in Mecca. It was a very tragic event, which echoed even past Ulcinj. Namely, when the Turkish sultan heard of the great accident, he ordered that Liko Cena must be found and imprisoned. Sultan also proclaimed that he'd richly award the one who catches or kills Liko Cena. But, exactly then on the sea appeared another, also very dangerous pirate Lambro or Aralampija as he was otherwise called. Originally from Greece, Lambro knew the sea very well, and he was thought to be a skilful pirate. Very dangerous and fearless, Lambro quickly became a real sea monster' for many trading ships and naval fleets. The news of Lambro`s misdeeds quickly got to the Turkish sultan. As the damages which Lambro`s company committed were immense, and sultan soon proclaimed that he will give a rich reward to the one who catches or kills Lambro. However, the time went by and the sultan could find Lambro. The only thing that at that moment was left to him to do was to send a message to Liko Cena in which he is saying that he'll forgive him everything if he manages to destroy Lambro. Sultan soon did that, and Liko Cena with pleasure accepted the call, binding himself in front of the sultan that he'll either catch Lambro or die. After some time, there comes a duel in which Liko Cena manages to kill Lambro.

For the favor he has done and for the loyalty, Turkish sultan spares Liko Cena`s life, by giving him the title of the captain. Famous men from Ulcinj, descendants of Liko Cena, were also distinguished captains. The legend of Liko Cena, among people is even toady mentioned as am unusual event, so people from Ulcinj from generation to generation tell the story of how the most famous bandit from Ulcinj thanks to the destiny became a captain.

Culture

Ulcinj is one of the oldest towns on the Adriatic Coast which for 25 years has been withstood the ravages of time. Through the centuries of the stored variety of cultures and civilizations merged in a compound. Ulcinj is like a little paradise on earth, a timelessly carved in the centuries of bloody battles, defiance, pride and love of all of those who have visited this place at least once in their life. The earliest tracks lead us to prehistoric time when Ulcinj belonged to Illyrians, a people of the Indo-European origin. The town, whose walls were often ruined in wars, was also at same speed renewed by all of those who because of the extreme beauty of this ancient town found their piece in it, building for themselves fortresses and residences.

The ancient Colchinium or Olcinijum, as Ulcinj was called in the period of Greek and Roman Empire, is mentioned in the written records of Plinije Older in his work Naturalis Historiae and in his works Tit Livije also mentions Ulcinj. In the earliest period fro the cultural and historical development of Ulcinj the name of the Byzantium Emperor Justinijan is mentioned. He renewed and built fortresses in Ulcinj, and after the era of his reign, after the year 1100, the same things were done by famous rulers which ruled one part of the former Montenegro and the Coast like: Nemanjici, Balsici, Venetians, and Turks. In the year 1183 Ulcinj becomes the most famous naval center in the Adriatic Sea, and somewhere about the same time a famous tower of Balsici was built.

Even though Ulcinj was never a capital of the Montenegrin rulers, the historical evidence leads us to conclusions that Ulcinj with the surroundings was a favorite destination of the rulers of Zeta, who used that town as some kind of a residence. In the year 1252 in Ulcinj the son of the King of Zeta Vukan, Djordjije who had a title Princeps Diocliae reigns. In the year 1281 in Ulcinj its resort found also the sister of the Queen Jelena Balsic, Marija, else French, a widow of the well-known French Duke Anselm se Chaurusa. She has a title Domina Ulcini. Marija's tomb was located in front of the altar of the Holy mother of God's church or Marko`s church in Ulcinj Also, the Queen Jelena, historically more famous as the widow of Uros I Nemanjic, with her sister Marija often used to stay in Ulcinj. The confirmation of their linkage with that town was a Franciscan convent, which the sisters built together in the year 1278.

Another Jelena, a great ruler and the widow of the Serbian Emperor Dusan, loved to stay in Ulcinj. Jelena for several years has even reigned over Ulcinj. Also in that town, in which he used to have a throne, famous ruler Djuradj Stratimirovic Balsic (1358 1403) is buried. In the time of the ruling era of families Nemanjic and Balsic, Ulcinj was famous for its mint factories of bronze and silver money.

In the quick onset on their fast horses in 1242 a Mongolian crowd from the central Asian areas came under the very walls of Ulcinj. As the attack of the Mongolians on the Old town of Ulcinj was unsuccessful, Mongolian government has attacked the neighboring Svac. Historically and culturally important fact is that the famous Svac was ruined by the Mongolians and killed all of their inhabitants. The town Svac, otherwise bishopric town, had 365 churches, as many churches as there are days in a year, so in the XIII century Queen Jelena Balsic renewed it. The Italian writers Djustinijani (1533) and Bici (1610) made written records of that event. The important fact for the cultural development of Ulcinj is that after the naval battle at Lapant (1571) in the Mediterranean Sea, in Ulcinj a famous Spanish writer Miguel de Servantes Savedra, who later wrote a world famous novel Don Quixote was imprisoned. It is supposed that the famous Servantes to his protagonist Don Quixote, in the same named novel, gave a lover named Dilcinee, a girl whose origin is from Ulcinj and who carried the name of the former name of Ulcinj- Cita de Dolcino, with whom Servanets was in lived with. Servants has spent almost 5 years in Ulcinj, and it is thought that together with the other slaves he was sold on a place which for them is called Slave square or Servantes`s square and it is located in the Old town. The staying of the famous Spanish writer in Ulcinj is interesting also because of the fact that the pirates who bought him, thought that Servatnes comes from a noble family, so for his ransom they have asked for much more money, so it took his family 5 years to collect that sum of money. Ulcinj, in fact Its Old town has in the past welcomed a famous reformer Sabati Cevi (1626 1676) who stayed in the well-known edifice tower of Balsici. Cevi is known in history as a promoter of Talmudo (The Holy Jewish Book).

To Cevi, according to the sources, Ulcinj was a last resort because around the year 1676 after converting himself to Islam, living as an exile, Cevi died in Ulcinj as Mehmed effendi. Today the preserved holy burial chamber of Mehmed effendi, is located in the yard of the family Manic, and it represents an eternal house of one of the greatest rebels of the XVII century. His tomb is preserved as sanctity. Cevi continued to live after death in the literary works. The face and the character of the controversial Jewish writer, as people conceive Cevi, appeared in the literary works of the literary great man like: Isak Basevic Singer (the novel The Slave) or an academic Erih Kos in the novel In the Search for Messiah. The name and the significance of the Sabati Cevi are mentioned in the work David's Star, of the famous Montenegrin literate and academic Zuvdija Hodzic. Ulcinj was interesting because of the health care tourism, so even in the 1925 in that town a scientific gathering took place, in which a famous German professor, otherwise, director of the Institute for the tropical diseases Doctor Not participated, and who thrilled with the region which surrounded Ulcinj stated: that never in his life he saw a region richer with stars than Ulcinj, adding that the value of Ulcinj for the human organism is very great and diverse, which once again proves that the staying in Ulcinj and its surrounding heals both soul and body. Considering the fact that Ulcinj is famous for its development of the crafts work, this town is a birthplace of Mrio Surla, a Montenegrin African and the son of the legendary photographer from Ulcinj Rizo Surla. Beside the skillful manufacture of the beautiful photographs of Ulcinj and the surroundings, Mario is famous as a passionate fisherman and a great Boehm. It is interesting to point out that the first settlers from the family Surla have come to Ulcinj 400 years ago as slaves. For the tourist development of the town of great importance are personalities like: Doctor Maksut Hadzibrahimovic, a scientific and expert worker, then tourist and public worker Dzelal Hodzic, and the president of the Union of the Albanians doctor Gani Karamanga. For the cultural development of Ulcinj and the surroundings the name of the Montenegrin painter Milo Pavlovic is connected, who has created his work and still creates in Ulcinj and whose face and work are famous even beyond the borders of Montenegro.

Nature

With its location Ulcinj takes the farthest South part of the Adriatic coast, and it is situated in the southeast part of the Montenegro. Because of the outstanding natural and geographic characteristics, Ulcinj with its surroundings belongs to the marginal subtopic zone of the European Mediterranean. With its South part, of length of 30 kilometers Ulcinj comes out on the Adriatic Sea, and on its East part River Bojana is situated. In the central part of Ulcinj there is Sasko Lake, and in the bay the massif of mountain Rumija shelters Ulcinj.

With nearly 20 kilometers of the beach, of which 15 km nice sandy ones, with over 6000 h of the cultivable soil, olive grows of about 88.000 trunks, healing features of the sand, mud and mineral sulfide waters (which got biggest marks from the eminent domestic and foreign experts and institutes), Ulcinj represents a respectable economically tourist potential for the development of all types of tourism (elite, nautical, and health one), and agriculture as a comparative branch. The area of 255 km2, which Ulcinj with the surroundings has, is a unique example of unusual beauty: endless sandy beaches, azure blue sea, rivers, lakes, mountains and dense vegetation. On the North of Ulcinj a coastal mountain Mozura (622m) is spread, and behind it is a part of the mountain massif of Rumija. On the East part of Ulcinj streams river Bojana, which by water way connects Ulcinj with Albania. West of Ulcinj there is a well known coastal town and the Montenegrin harbor, Bar. The shore of Ulcinj, from the bay Kruca to the mouth of the River Bojana, is 32.7 km long. Ulcinj lies on the open sea. The highest mountain peak is Kozjak (1.427 m height above sea level). The area on which town was founded and on which it is still developing is very alpine. The foothill of the hills Pinjes (108m), Mendre (164m), and Bijela Gora (289m) constitute that area. On the East part of Ulcinj there are fields with lakes, swamps, little rivers as well as long sandy beaches.

Because of the very suitable climate, on a tourist map of Europe for a long time Ulcinj has been recognized as a perfect climate summer and winter resort. Ulcinj is typified by the moderately Mediterranean climate and subtropical vegetation. Such climate understands an abundance of light and warmth, with 2.700 sunny hours per year. Ulcinj is for sure one of the sunniest places of the Adriatic coast. The average yearly temperature of air is 16.5C o , so Ulcinj is considered to be a much warmer place compared to other towns on the Montenegrin coast. The summers in Ulcinj are pleasant, and are not too warm, because for the constant flow of air, in that town there are very few tropical days. Air temperature reaches 38 C o , while in July the approximate air temperature is 25.2 C o . during the summer period the sun warms up to 11.5 hours during the day. Sunbathing and swimming in Ulcinj lasts for 6 months, from May until October. The equalized temperatures of the sea and the air (from 22 to 26C o ), allow whole day enjoyment in swimming in delightful water of the Ulcinj bay and sunbathing on the healing beaches of the Ulcinj coast Winters in Ulcinj are mild, snow rarely falls, and the air temperatures is only 10 Co. Springs as well as autumns come pretty early and are mostly warm with moderate temperatures both of air and sea(in the spring the temperature is !4 and in the autumn it is 17C o ). The South coast to which Ulcinj belongs is considered to be the clearest area of the Mediterranean. The average yearly humidity is 67%, except that in July it reaches 63%, and in May and November 71 71 %, which shows a regular ratio of the temperature and the air humidity. The average amount of the precipitation, exclusively rain, is 134 mm/m 2 . The most characteristic winds are: the tempest, the south wind, and the mistral. The tempest blows from the Northeast direction. Usually it is a cold wind, which blows late in autumn and late in winter. The costal wind better known as the south wind or sirocco, blows in Ulcinj in autumn, winter or in spring and it brings rain. That wind usually makes big waves on the sea. The wind mistral comes from the direction west southwest. It is a pleasant wind, which brings refreshment from the heat in the warmest summer hours. The greatest intensity, with which mistral can blow is 10 m/sec.

The climate in Ulcinj has contributed to a creation of three vegetative regions: evergreen (which includes the vegetation from 300 m height), mixed (up to 500 m height) and submontane one (above 500 m height). Vegetation regions have made conditions for the development of various kinds of fruit, vegetable and other sorts. In the evergreen region olives, figs, oranges, lemons, almond, kiwi and Japanese apples thrive best. In the mixed vegetation region chestnut, pomegranate, mulberry tree, grape vine and corn are bred. In the submonteane region corn, tobacco, pears and plums thrive best. Still, in the entire area of Ulcinj mostly the autochthonic fruit sort olive, from which for centuries in the area of Montenegrin coast oil of high quality is made, is bred. The households of Ulcinj mostly breed and collect olives, and in the cove Valdanos there are big parcels on which a great number of olive trees are planted. The season of collecting olives and producing high quality edible oil, usually lasts from November to February, but olive oil extracted by squeezing olive fruit, in a glass package, in the basements can be kept for several years, without the fear that its color, nutritional value and quality will change. Beside the olive tree Ulcinj coast is rich with south kinds of oaks, Mediterranean conifers, with wide treetop, among which the most typical representatives are white and black pine, marquis (laurel, myrtle, rosemary, and European holly) but also decorative exotic plants like palm tree, agaves, cypresses, and mimosas. In the fauna of Ulcinj mostly wild animals like: fox, wolfs, wild boar, rabbit, marten, squirrel prevail, and in the mountain region you can see wild dog (jackal).

For those who can resist the real call of nature, a real recommendation is the Ulcinj salt work factory. Because of the spacious, shallow and well-sunbathed pools, the salt work factory reminds on lagoons in tropical seas. This place in recent years is recognizable in both Europe and the World, as a favorite meeting place of funs of bird watching observation of birds. Still, in the time of picking, in the sections of the salt work factory, it is being transferred and tones of high quality, far famous salt is being packed, and because of that fact the salt work factory is considered a highly productive agricultural object. Salt work factory in Ulcinj is a unique ecosystem, which encompasses the area of 15 kilometers and gives ideal conditions for the hibernation and feeding of birds. During the winter months in the salt work factory more than 20.000 birds, mostly from the family of woodcocks is being registered. At the area around the salt work factory hibernate also: pelicans, ducks, cormorants, prey birds and songbirds. Also, in that area the rarest birds of the Montenegrin ornitoflora like for e.g. long footed goosefoot dwell, and in the area around the salt work factory its young ones grows Sheldrake, otherwise very rare bird which comes from the North areas. The unique, very dense woods of tamaris surround salt work factory in Ulcinj. In the past in the place where today salt work factory is located there used to be a swampy and very shallow soil of Zoganjsko Lake, which got its name by the Albanian river Zog which means bird. A famous researcher of birds of Montenegro, Ljudevit Firer at the end of the XIX century, wrote a record that in the area of the salt work factory at that time there were 39 nests of pelicans and numerous other birds. The experts for the world ecosystems have pointed out that the salt lake factory is also protected as an economic subject that there is no free access to that area, that the birds can be observed only from the car, and that the most significant ecological factor is peace.

However, beside birds in Ulcinj, more precisely in the mouth of the River Bojana, very attractive is also fishing of a fish called LICA, a big predator and a great fighter, whose pieces sometimes weight over 20 kg. Kind hosts will always gladly take you by boat to hunting and lead you in to the small secrets. If you are a hunter, underwater fisherman, fisherman etc. on River Bojana and on Porto Milena you can see numerous calimeras. Calimeras are ancient houses with attractive devices for a specific way of hunting fish, which has effectively kept until nowadays in this area. Aquatorium of Ulcinj is very rich with fish. A long time ago in the bay in big quantities was caught: sardella (sardine pilchardus lat.) while today there are found mostly: arbun (pagellus erythrinus lat.), surmullet (mullus barbutus lat.), sea perch (dicentrachus labrax), thin bleak (diplodus sargus lat.), sapa (sarpa salpa lat.), Canada thistle (sarda sarda lat.), and gof (seriola dumerili lat.). In a smaller number in Ulcinj aquatorium there are still: European cuttlefish, octopus, shells, crabs, oysters and finger like fishes.

 

Find more on : www.visit-montenegro.com , www.photo-montenegro.com

Zabljak

Zabjak is the highest town in the Balkans. It is situated at an altitude of 1456 m, in the very centre of the giant Durmitor mountain range and represents a most attractive destination for winter tourism. In the close vicinity there is the deepest canyon in Europe (secound deepest canyon in World, after Colorado canyon, USA), the magnificent canyon of the Tara river. This small town in the northern part of

Montenegro is surrounded by numerous lakes and a large number of mountain tops.

The natural beauty that exist all around Zabljak attracts a large number of tourists in the summer time as well. The fact that Durmitor mountain range is covered with 1500 species of various plants in the out-of-winter season, is a good enough reason to visit this small town. Manifestations such as the Days of the Mountain Flowers and the Angel Cup enrich the tourist offer of Zabljak, and the monasteries and churches in the vicinity of the town contribute to the development of the religious tourism. Rafting on the Tara river is definitely a special attraction for the extreme sports lovers.

 

Find more on : www.visit-montenegro.com , www.photo-montenegro.com